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 Universe & Space

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Posted on 02-12-15 6:06 AM     Reply [Subscribe]
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How big is the universe!! Is it ever expanding like the sound or it has an end to it. It's been the question since the beginning of mankind. Any one got good explanations or theories to it !? Would love to have some healthy conversation.
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Posted on 02-12-15 12:53 PM     [Snapshot: 137]     Reply [Subscribe]
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The problem with universe is that no one knows what really happened.
Everything is based on mathematics calculation and theory which is not always correct.
To Explain how fast universe is expanding, we need to find out how it started. The widely accepted theory of start of universe is the Einsteins theory of relativity, which calculates the start of universe ad Big Bang aka singularity. But the problem with general relativity is that it explains what happened right after the Big Bang but fails to explain what happened at or before the Big Bang. So all laws of physics breaks at singularity.
It is believed, there is Big Bang and Big Crunch in the life cycle of universe. General relativity suggests that at some point, universe starts to shrink and ultimately become so dense that it collapse on itself. And becomes singularity again followed by big bang. So on current theory universe doesn't always expand.

There is new theory published few weeks back that totally rejects the concept of singularity and big bang. But predicts that the universe is there infinitely. There is no start and end.

And the concept of expanding universe is mathematically wrong. Its like saying 1= 2 = 3 ... = infinite. How can new space be created?

Posted on 02-12-15 1:19 PM     [Snapshot: 133]     Reply [Subscribe]
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You tend to analyze physical phenomena in perspective of philosophical, spiritual, using human emotions, and humanly observations ( meaning humans are part of whole physical interractions as if we play part in speed of light, gravitation force or in any other natural forces etc). The role of humans here is just to observe and conclude intellectually what might, or is happening. You do not have to burn yourself to see or feel like how sun is burning. We have emotions, senses, intellect, understanding which matter or physical substances do not have. We are just trying observe, collect date, conclude, study the present and predict both future and past. We have no role whatsoever in this universe for the things that are acting the way they are. You do not have be a photon to observe how photon acts. Its just plain simple observation, data collection and conclusion without disturbing the system. Matter fact, we are part and product of this universe and time ( Universe, galaxies, stars, sun, planets, earth, water, minerals, DNA, Bacteria, invertebrates, vertebrates, mammals, monkeys, humans a.k.a universal evolution)
Here we are talking about physical forces, physical interractions physical phenomenas.
The universe was always there before humans evolved, before biology evolved ( biological interractions) started, even chemistry evolved ( chemical interraction). Atma, brahmans are created by humans. A dead chicken is dead as a rock. It will decay, transforms into biofuel eventually becomes a fossil fuel which is petrol. If you dig deep inside, you are just a composition of C,H,O,N, etc with intellectual mind, product of evolution which took billions of years to get here. We can fly a plane, take a robot to Mars, transplant a heart,while our close hereditary relative, Monkeys are still climbing trees.
Spiritual ?religious thoughts are end result of our intellectual brain. We were nothing before we were born and will be nothing after the death. Only us as a animal are intellectual and want meaning of life. Meaning of life is to live and we are only living because we are not dead if that makes sense.
Now lets understand infinity. A length of scale/ruler is finite. You have a starting point and ending point. Speed of light is finite. A photon starts from point A and travels to point B in one sec. You measure distance divide by time, you get the speed. The distance of earth and sun is finite. You have point A to start and Point B to finish. Both can be marked in in real-time and space. But space does not have starting or ending point. Its just there. Like numbers if you say, a finite set of numbers ( 1-100000) then its finite. But there is not limit on when or where we can start or end numbers. Likewise, Observable universe has finite space it has occupied. The space that has not been occupied by matter or energy is still space whether there is photon/matter/energy present or not. When photon reaches there then it becomes part of observable universe's space.
Infinity basically means no boundaries. You can keep on going, stop somewhere and make a boundary, but if you want to travel further there is no boundary because the extension itself does not have boundary.
Would space have boundary?
No, it is extension of three dimension where matter/energy interracts. Lets start a journey from sun, photon gets to galaxies and more galaxies, finally reach to end point of universe, as it reaches the end of observable universe, space still exists beyond that point but now photon will travel through through space beyond observable universe before. So, there was a finite universe in finite space, the very moment photon travels through that boundary, the universe expanded through space. Space was always there before the photon reached there.
Posted on 02-12-15 2:08 PM     [Snapshot: 181]     Reply [Subscribe]
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The size of the observable universe is determined by the number of years since the big bang. The time when the big bang occurred was 13.789 billion years ago. Therefore the size of the observable universe is nominally 13.798 billion light years since there is not enough time for anything further away that that (and further back in time than that) to have emitted light that we can now "observe". That is what is meant by term "the observable universe".
The 13.798 billion years is the current best estimated time to the Big Bang (measured to 0.3% accuracy) and 379,000 years is the number of years after the Big Bang when the universe would have cooled off enough to become transparent. The (mostly visible light) photons from the hot plasma that filled the universe at that time have been traveling since then and have now been red-shifted down into the microwave range. This is the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation that has been very accurately measured by the WMAP and Planck satellite.
Btw, for those who were born prior to 90s we've seen this CMB in our television sets as dark and white dots, when we didn't get any signal. CMB data is one of the most important pieces of evidence used to verify and validate our current model of the universe. This model enables us, for example, to say that the Big Bang happened 13.798 billion years ago with an uncertainty of only +/- 0.037 billion years. Two engineers from Bell Labs accidentally detected this CMB while pointing their MW detectors in the sky and got the Nobel.
If we are using only photons, we will not be able to see any further back in time (to before 379,000 years after the Big Bang) since the universe was opaque to photons before that time.

However, if we are ever able to invent and use a neutrino telescopes to measure very low energy cosmic neutrinos (which is probably impossible), then we would be able to see back to just a few minutes or seconds after the Big Bang. Finally, it is also theoretically possible to see back to roughly 10^{-30} seconds after the Big Bang if we could measure the possible gravitational waves that could have been generated at the end of the inflationary period of the Big Bang at that time ( 10^{-30} seconds ).

Will the size of the observable universe increase (or decrease) with time?

Well, if there were no dark energy creating an accelerated expansion of the universe, we would have eventually, as time went on see more and more matter in our observable universe. For example at 50 billion years after the big bang we would have seen up to 50 billion light years away and all the galaxies within that distance could be visible to us.

However, we now know that the rate of the expansion is accelerating (Thanks to Edwin Hubble!). That means that we will see less and less matter in the observable universe as time goes forward. For example, at 50 billion years after the big bang, we would be able to see out to 50 billion light years, however, there will be fewer galaxies visible than we can see right now. This is because galaxies that are currently near the edge of our 13.8 billion light year observable universe will be accelerated away from us at faster than the speed of light due to the accelerated expansion and therefore will be beyond the observable universe horizon by then. In fact, at about 2 trillion years after the big bang, the only galaxies visible in our universe will be the locally gravitationally bound group of galaxies - at most a few dozen!

Some fun facts -> Andromeda galaxy and Milky way galaxy are in collision course. Rough timeline 3-4 billion years from now ! That will be quite a view !!!!
But hey, by then our Sun will have exhausted it's fuel (hydrogen atoms to carry on nuclear fusion and form He atoms and energy ) and stopped providing light. What's up with our Surya Bhagwan !!!!
So, we humans and our imaginary GODS and associated philosophy, religion, language is so insignificant compared to the Universe and its behaviour !!~!!
Posted on 02-12-15 2:20 PM     [Snapshot: 187]     Reply [Subscribe]
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@8848m.... I don't see anything that I disagree with you.

Posted on 02-12-15 3:17 PM     [Snapshot: 227]     Reply [Subscribe]
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@ Ujl, It was other way, I did not agree with you.

"There are things beyond science and its called Metaphysics. I hope you don't mind me talking about metaphysics here. Space in infinite. However, you will not understand infinity until and unless you experience infinity. True knowledge only comes through direct experience. Our forefathers already asked this question thousands of years ago and came up with the word Atma and Brahman. Atma and Brahman are same. Atma is the subtle consciousness within and we call the same Atma as Brahman because of it nature of expansiveness. However, Atma doesn't depend on Space and time for its existence. Space and time exist because of Brahman. For example, diamond doesn't intent to shine, but shining automatically happens because of its existence." and it goes on.

Great post, Like Like.
That clarifies confusion on Big Bang and expansion. Big Bang is just a theory because nobody can travel back in time and see what exactly happened. But, With these substantial evidences and data supporting the theory, universe was at one point clustered together with mass and energy.

Posted on 02-12-15 3:42 PM     [Snapshot: 244]     Reply [Subscribe]
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@8848m.... Your mere observation changes the pattern how matter behaves! In such a situation, how do you even study the reality of matter whose tendencies changes by your observation? I recommend you watch this video:

Posted on 02-12-15 4:09 PM     [Snapshot: 267]     Reply [Subscribe]
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FYI : Did not watch the video.
That is 100 or even more years old experiment of wave-particle duality . No offense, science has moved on. Just do research, you will find answers.
Posted on 02-12-15 6:14 PM     [Snapshot: 319]     Reply [Subscribe]
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Great great observations and discussions guys. Love them. Space and time has always baffled my mind. Recently I just read that what ever we been taking for granted or else how we thought universe was created called Big Bang might not be the start really. They are saying that universe started before Big Bang. Big bang was just a collision so there was space and universe before that. Although not related to science, like Vedas say time is not constant I totally believe in it coz time slows down in space and our atomic time in earth is completely different if we take time in space so I truly believe that speed of light is the fastest in only in this universe. I am sure there are photons that travel faster than speed of light. As much as I try to go deep in study about space I feel like I am stuck by the black hole. It's too complex and we have really small amount of answes right now.
Posted on 02-12-15 9:17 PM     [Snapshot: 378]     Reply [Subscribe]
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@8848m......My main point here is: "Consciousness is primary." Without consciousness, the chair, the table, the building in front of you cannot even exist for a second. Do you see anything in deep sleep state? There is no way that you can prove that objects outside have independent existent without consciousness involved. It is consciousness that gives value to everything.
Posted on 02-12-15 10:52 PM     [Snapshot: 388]     Reply [Subscribe]
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Your, mine and our consciousness has nothing to do with the existence of anything around (chair, table, building, a cute girl) or in the whole universe. "We're all star dust" - Carl Sagan.
Just like the Sun, core of stars is a nuclear furnace but unlike the Sun's core, these cores manufacture heavier elements C,O,N,Fe etc.and when these stars die and go supernova all these elements are spewed into the cosmos. Hence, C in the wood of chair, table, Fe in the steel of building; N in the amino acid of that cute girl all came from some stars that went supernova million and billions years ago somewhere in cosmos. Let's make it more interesting, N in the amino acid of her one hand might have come from different star of different galaxy than of her other hand !
C,H,O,N elements from star (that went supernova) reaches earth -> simple molecules (like RNA,DNA) forms undergoes self replication -> amino acids (protein) -> single cell organisms -> multicell organisms -> .........billions years of evolutionary history....-> humans. Theory of evolution, Origin of species, how some became extinct and how some evolved over time, is better explained by Charles Darwin. Happy B'day to him.

Universe and everything within it doesn't care whether humans have conscience ! There are fundamental laws governing the Universe. Laws of Physics, call it Laws of Nature if you please.
Our conscience has only evolved since approx. 200K years ago when Homo sapiens sapiens originated and started to evolve. Compare this timeline with the age of Universe. Human species developed much larger brain (of many other things) than other primates (closest cousins chimps and gorillas). Ability to use all the sense organs to interact with the environment, and larger brain gave added advantage over other species. All of this religion, philosophy - couple of thousand years old. Btw, philosophy and religion tried to answer most of the ancient human curiosity, but with the advent of science they sound stupid (at least to me). They are not progressive ! All of the advancement in science and technology couple of hundred years old. Most recent hi-tech stuff couple of decades old.

Some fun facts - With approx. 200K years of history, humans have ruled the earth with class and style. Thanks to brain and science. This is crazy ! Dinosaurs ruled the earth for over 250 million years, they didn't do shit over that time. They didn't use science, nor they had brains like ours. Perhaps they had only Conscience !
Posted on 02-12-15 11:31 PM     [Snapshot: 429]     Reply [Subscribe]
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iLED....Universal law doesn't pop out from nothing. Flower has a purple color, because it's seed contains that information. Seed is called the unmanifest reality and flower is called the manifest reality. Have you ever seen anything coming out of nothing? Space is the cause of this universe. Now, my question to you is what is the cause of this space?
Posted on 02-13-15 11:38 AM     [Snapshot: 508]     Reply [Subscribe]
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I believe you mean consciousness equal intelligence. Is the flower purple if you see it or not? Yes, it will be purple without your presence. Some animals are colorblind, they might see red colored flower as black, does that mean that flower is red or black. The pigments inside the flowers are still the same but different animals see its color differently depending upon the senses, eyes, brain etc. But the no matter which color animal sees them, the pigments never change. We cannot see infra-red light, or ultrasounds, does that mean they are not present? No, we are not the right equipment to detect them.
Seed had biological information/pattern in it for it to become what it became. Without minerals, water, right temperature, soil acidity or whatever, it could not have grown biologically into a flowering plant and flower. There is no unmanifest reality and manifest reality as where you came definition with. It was a biological process. Same with you and me, becoming a full grown human beings from single cells of sperm and ova from our parents.

Space is always there. When no matter/energy is present, then there is empty space.
Space is occupied/wrapped around when matter is present. When you look at the sky, Its all space. Imagine, there is no air and the matter you can see is cloud. Earth, a matter that occupied the space and then there is vacuum gap between earth and cloud, where there is nothing, just empty " space". Then you go couple miles high, you will hit the clouds, which is matter again. After you pass the cloud, there is nothing, just empty "space" and then you reach moon in 239K miles traveling that distance. Then journey begin through space, some parts occupied by matter and energy, other parts nothing just dark vacuum. Space was not or does not have to be created.

Another example, A car travelling on the surface on earth. Lets imagine, for some odd reason, the whole planetary system dissipated. the car has no surface to travel upon. No forces are there acting upon it. It is just hanging on "space". The car occupies that vacuum space on its presence, if it was not there then it would be empty "space". Who created that space, nobody, its just three dimensional extension where car exists. Stars ,galaxies or any heavenly objects you see in the universe are like the car. They exists in that open space.

There is no cause of space. Space was there or will be be there whether matter/energy is present at given time or not.

@ Ronaldo7
Are there more universes, probably not. The fundamental properties of matter/energy has to be universal. From the start of time for our universe ( Big Bang), till now is what we see. What was before big bang? Irrelevant because the starting point for this universe is big bang. Before big bang, there was big big bang, then before that there bigger big bang, and before that there was biggest big bang and it goes on. So, for things to start somewhere, starting point ( time) for this universe is Big Bang.

Black holes are stars that collapsed on their own mass. On earth, if we try to jump, we cannot reach higher than 6 feet. Stone on earth cannot jump but we can. Simply,Black hole is like big earth where even photons/ anything cannot jump. The mass/density is so high, that gravitation force takes over. The space is wrapped in such a way that matter/energy falls into the hole.
If you see some videos, or read some articles/books, you will understand in more detail.

Last edited: 13-Feb-15 11:39 AM

Posted on 02-13-15 12:38 PM     [Snapshot: 529]     Reply [Subscribe]
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@8848m..... I am not talking about the ego bound individual consciousness (Jivatma). I am talking about the transcendental witness consciousness (Turiya) which doesn't take part in anything. For example, space is unaffected even if you detonate the most powerful atom bomb. In that sense, space is transcendental in nature. However, if matter has to exist within the space, there must be some organic connection between matter and space.

How do you know for sure that space has no cause? How do you know for sure that space was always there? Have you experienced by yourself? Or do you have any authentic source which proves space has no cause? When you claim something, you also need to provide explanations. You cannot just say space is always there. Another question arise, why is space always there? Why something like empty void (space) wants to exist for itself and forever? These are not an easy questions and I am not hoping answers from you because these question cannot be answered through your logical reasoning. This is where Vedas starts. Where quantum physics ends, Vedas starts.
Posted on 02-13-15 7:53 PM     [Snapshot: 654]     Reply [Subscribe]
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How do you know for sure that space has no cause?
Ok. Lets define space again, its three dimensional extension where matter and energy interact. Now, its friday, we having fun after the long week, You and I go to a party together. Music is loud, you are taking shots or may be not, depends if you drink. We having good times, ladies are dancing and so are we. Now we take one more shot and I tell you bro, you are too close ( distance wise) to me and I need some space. Here, space we are talking about the distance. You and I are matters interacting so are stars, galaxies, energies and black holes. What keeps us apart is "space". You and I stand on earth, but earth is just rolling round and round in the space, it does not have a ground to hold ( gravitation force from sun, yes but if it was not there, it would still be rolling through space). The space here we are talking about is the distance between objects a.k.a Space. That distance or space is everywhere through out universe. Nobody has to create or there has to be cause. Now tell me, does there has to be cause to have space/distance between any objects.

How do you know for sure that space was always there?
Again, I am not sure what you think of space. Another example, there is an empty jar. How do you know its empty? Because it does not have nothing. How do you prove there is nothing? "Nothing" is just a name given for the incident when anything is not present. What cause nothing? nothing being there is the cause for nothing. Space is like a distance, in three dimension, where there is nothing, there is space.
Have you experienced by yourself?
Party example comes handy again.

Or do you have any authentic source which proves space has no cause?
When I say there is zero apple on the table, its like asking me to prove "zero apple in the table". First of all, there is not a apple to show you what apple looks like, and zero stands nada, none. So, I cannot prove you there is no apple on the table.

When you claim something, you also need to provide explanations.
Explained enough
You cannot just say space is always there.
Another question arise, why is space always there?
Because its space/ distance/ Dimension where you and I interact, Stars interact, energy interact, forces interact, universe exists.

Why something like empty void (space) wants to exist for itself and forever?
Let me laugh first. Why does nothing exists, why does zero exists. Nothing is just a name given for certain situation, so does zero means, When we say zero apples, where does zero exists. Zero means there is none apple. Its just an analogy. Space is there because its there. Why there is distance between sun and earth, well because they are far in distance, in space.
These are not an easy questions and I am not hoping answers from you because these question cannot be answered through your logical reasoning.
These questions are neither hard, either. Bro, You need to come out of cause and effect phenomena. Space is there because it was always there. Its not a object for you to have cause and effect. Its just a notation for three dimensional directions and time. If we did not call it space, we might call distance, or vacuum or anything.
This is where Vedas starts. Where quantum physics ends, Vedas starts
Ha ha ha. Bro if it was true, then all our courses would be vedas, we would be taught vedas, Nasa would use vedas, Tesla would use veda, So would Newton, So would the world.

Anyways, its nice discussion. Happy friday and enjoy bro. We will talk more.
Posted on 02-13-15 8:35 PM     [Snapshot: 663]     Reply [Subscribe]
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@8848: Mr 8848 you have given some excellent answers. I totally agree with you in many ways. But when you say space will always be there i have a problem. You are giving answer for this question based on how you feel but not providing any scientific explanation. 'Space will always be there" aint no scientific explanation. why does space exist when nothing else does? Did we had space before the big bang? The answer is we don't know. My guts says yes there was space no matter what but that doesn't mean its the right answer. was there space before big bang?. Dimensions came after the big bang. Without the Universe how do you define dimensions. To have dimensions you must have to refer to something. If space is a dimension then how can you say space was there before the Universe existed?Do you have any scientific proof or a formula to prove that? You might have and if you provide me one i will definitely applause it.
Other thing is you totally ignored the consciousness as if it is nothing. Yes evolution has made us intelligent and has helped all the animals evolve and change according to time to survive. But think about this: How did the first animals knew that they have to insert their junk(Penis) into the ladies vagina to have a baby or to quench their sexual desire. Think about Elephants. For them it is such an extra task to climb that high to have sex unless they are 100% sure that that vagina will quench their sexual desire. What I'm saying is todays elephants saw other elephants doing that or are evolved and carry a natural instinct on how to have sex but think about the first elephants or any animals in the begining. Some way or the other we all have some sort of consciousness. Without it we cannot survive. Higher consciousness comes when you can train your mind to that level: eg: from meditation. BTW Consciousness is not brillian
Posted on 02-13-15 9:35 PM     [Snapshot: 695]     Reply [Subscribe]
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@8848m.....Distance is merely an idea in your mind. Space is an undivided reality. You cannot cut, separate, burn this reality called space. Space doesn't depend on distance for its existence but distance is just an idea in your mind. As Corporate America mentioned above, you are completely ignoring the consciousness aspect that is present within this space. Who is becoming aware of this space? What is the relation between consciousness and space? Where did consciousness came from? Can consciousness come from unconscious matter/energy? The creative intelligence is not only present in humans but is present in plant kingdom as well as in prokaryotes. The sunflower, for example, moves its leaves according to the position of sun so that it can get maximum sunlight. This behavior is only possible because of the creative intelligence that is within sunflower.

What happens in a paralysis? Some portion of the body doesn't move. Why? Because the consciousness has been blocked to that region and that region simply doesn't exist for that person, though outside people may be able to see that paralyzed portion. The paralyzed portion is good for nothing. It simply doesn't exist for the individual simply because the consciousness is blocked. Therefore, you cannot ignore consciousness aspect which is present within the space and you must be open to all kind of philosophy because reality changes according to the state of your consciousness. Why do you totally ignore your dream world as if nothing happened in dream. So many things happened and dreams are experienced as real for the time being but when you wake up you don't give a crap about dream. Why? Because your reality has changed just by shifting your consciousness. Therefore, when talking about Reality and Space, you cannot totally ignore one aspect and only talk about some aspect which you think is more finer and therefore should be real. Dream is also real for the dreamer for the time being. While dreaming you have no idea about its unreality. What is the entity that is shifting your reality? It is consciousness. Therefore, you must harmonize all aspects if you want to understand the Ultimate Reality which is beyond time and space.
Posted on 02-13-15 9:41 PM     [Snapshot: 705]     Reply [Subscribe]
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Bro, m really drunk at the very moment, just finished my pint of smirnoff. we will get together here soon. as of right now, dont care about universe and space much. Let me sober up and we will talk more. Friday, the great day.
Posted on 02-13-15 9:55 PM     [Snapshot: 701]     Reply [Subscribe]
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I have to differ with you that space is just a distance between to matters. Space is built with dark matter. The 96% of the what is think its out there is unknown. There is just too much to find out and learn about the universe. But i dont want Ujl to get all excited on his hypothesis, just because you cannot explain it one way should not automatically prove the " religious" agenda.

How did first animals know how to have sex? Sex started way before "animals",. I have to say it started with the first cell division. You have to believe in evolution to believe that. You remind me of people asking if revolution was true then how come we dont see monkeys turning into humans anymore. Reproduction is millions of years of evolutionary work since life was single celled.

Posted on 02-13-15 10:06 PM     [Snapshot: 718]     Reply [Subscribe]
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@sidster.....I am not mixing any religious ideas here nor quoting anything from the Vedas. I am explaining things using examples that are part of our lives. If religion contradicts science, I will never follow such religion.
Posted on 02-16-15 10:15 AM     [Snapshot: 911]     Reply [Subscribe]
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Universe and space has always been one of the most intriguing subjects for mankind. I wanted to share this article which is very different from what scientists have been saying all along..

Quantum Equation Suggests the Big Bang Never Occurred and the Universe Has No Beginning

New study gives an astonishing answer to the eternal question of how the world began. Two astrophysicists argue that the Big Bang may never have happened, meaning the universe may have existed forever.

The model they suggest complements Einstein’s theory of general relativity with quantum corrections, and could also explain dark matter and dark energy.

It’s needless to say that this hypothesis on the origin of the universe is drastically different from most modern cosmological models. One of the most popular ones, the Big Bang theory, suggests that the universe began from a single, infinitely dense point known as the “singularity,” which began to expand 13.8 billion years ago resulting in a “Big Bang.” This is when the universe began according to the proponents of this model.

The Big Bang theory is derived from the mathematics of general relativity, but there are some weak points in it, since it can only explain what happened immediately after the Big Bang, but not before.

Now, Dr. Ahmed Farag Ali of Benha University, Egypt, in collaboration with Professor Saurya Das of the University of Lethbridge, Canada, came up with a series of equations that present an eternal universe with no beginning nor end.

In their work, Ali and Das used the ideas of David Bohm, American theoretical physicist, to make quantum corrections to an equation developed by Indian physicist Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri (the so-called Raychaudhuri’s equation), thus combining elements from bothquantum mechanics and general relativity. As a result, they got a universe that was much smaller in the past, but never existed as the infinite density point.

The Big Bang singularity is the most serious problem of general relativity because the laws of physics appear to break down there,” says Ali.


What about dark energy and dark matter? It is another unsolved mystery of the universe that has been torturing scientific minds for years, as it has been confirmed that dark matter together with dark energy form approximately 95% of the total content of the universe, but yet so little is known about these mysterious phenomena.

Here Das and Ali’s model suggests that dark energy and dark matter may be derived from aBose-Einstein condensate, a state of matter in which particles display macroscopic quantum phenomena. This condensate existed in the early universe and may have been formed bygravitons – hypothetical particles that flood the universe and carry gravity but have no mass.

Of course, the model suggested by Ali and Das is not a full theory of quantum gravity, but it is another major attempt to unite quantum theory and general relativity, which has been one of the most significant challenges in physics for the last decades.


Anna is the owner and lead editor of the website, and a staff writer for The Mind Unleashed. She is passionate about learning new things and reflecting on thought-provoking ideas. She writes about technology, science, psychology and other related topics. She is particularly interested in topics concerning consciousness and subconscious, perception, human mind’s potential, as well as the nature of reality and the universe.

©2015 The Mind Unleashed, Inc, all rights reserved. For permission to re-print this article contact [email protected] , or the respective author.

Featured image: This is an artist’s concept of the metric expansion of space, where space (including hypothetical non-observable portions of the universe) is represented at each time by the circular sections. Credit: NASA



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लाज ले रातो पिरो भईन
क-कसको के के बिक्यो ?
नेपाल गएर गर्ने के?
Nepali High profile call girls
TPS application status
South east asian aryans now fearing white aryans in US
Amway Work and benefit
आँकको रुख
अमेरिकामा भारतीय-अमेरिकन इन्जिनियरमाथि गोली प्रहार
म त खुसी छु अमेरिकामा - अमृत भण्डारी
How long does it take to get I485 approved?
Help me find OLD NEPALI FOLK geet
राम्री केटिहरुका लागी मात्र ::: पी.आर पाउने नया उपाय !!
Who designed Nepalese Flag?
Any T mobile employee willing to provide hookup code ?
Nepali girls in Thamel in London!!!
Nepali High profile call girls
TRUMP 2016!!! Here is why?
Vote for Hillary for President not Bernie 2016
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