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 THE ORIGIN OF HINDU RELIGION

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Posted on 04-20-09 10:12 AM     Reply [Subscribe]
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THE ORIGIN OF HINDU RELIGION

Birth of Hindu religion:
There are different opinions regarding of the birth of Hindu religion. There is literally a tug of war between the scholars’ one in favour of Dravidian origin and other of Aryan origin. There is hardly any third opinion on that though a small section feels that it has originated from indigenous tribal of India. This is because no great man of this origin had ever tried to write or researched to claim that Hindu religion is born from their indigenous tribal faith.

First of all the word Hindu it self has root to non-aryan Kirata or Borok origin with Sindu or Chindi river through the Indus civilisation, is not at all the Indo-Aryan one. Secondly the theory of Hindu religions birth from indo-Aryan faith is null and void by the following facts. Let us look at the list of names of Gods which the Indo-Aryan people had brought when they invaded Indus civilisation. Rig-veda has all the names of god which the Indo-Aryan used to worship when they first came to India. Their faith and philosophy were based on these gods only. The rituals, procedure and hymn etc were detailed in the sacred text of Vedas. Some of the primary and powerful gods mentioned in the Rig-Vedas are Indra, Agni, Varun, Vrihaspati, Brahma, Arundhati, Soma, Vayu, Aswin, Rhitu, Marut, Rudra, Ribhus, Savitar, Brahmanspati. But in the present day Hindu religion none of the Vedic god is worshipped in India. The Brahma is the only one ha temple at Puskar in Rajasthan, and he too does not have any day fixed through out a year. There is no god of Aryan or Vedic origin in the list of Hindu Gods of modern India, other than doubtfully the Vishnu which is considered to be origin of Dravidian. On the contrary none of the Hindu gods of modern India is mentioned or had a place in Vedas. These facts clearly prove that the Hindu religion and its gods are neither born from Aryan faith nor derived from Vedic gods and philosophy.

http://tripurasociety.org/hindu.htm
 
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suvachintak1
Sir, you have asked very good question. your question of "I am very interested in knowing where did Nepali people come from? How did we get divided in to Brahmin, Newars , etc…..?" will come very soon. Sir, I will certainly raise this question. This question will no doubt help to resolve some Nepali identity crisis. Please wait.
My dear brothers and sisters, please do not pressurize me to hurry up with so many question at one time. It's will be very confusing for all of you which i had initially too when i was doing my research and study.
Time will tell. So please be patient.

Shantipriya
Sir, yes you are correct to say that i have so far only done my research by Google, copy, cut and paste. But you need to remember that info. on the websites are not false either.
The info. given out by these sites do contains valuable piece of work which is just the finding.

Anyway so i am going to continue my findings.

Scriptural
texts mention a number of tribes that inhabited the region, such as the Sakas, the Nagas, Khasas, Hunas, and Kiratas....etc.
Most importantly Kiratas has been mentioned the most number of times in the
vedic literature and because several scholars have done extensive research onto this unique race, i have quite a findings to share with you.


Kirata in Ancient Religious Text, Epic and
Mythology:

Rajmala mentions that Tripuri used to be known as Kirata in older times. The root word of Kirata is not clear, it may be Kwrak, meaning strong, or Kirithaya>Kiritya>Kirata what is fearless. Kirata is mentioned in the Yajur and Atharva Veda. Similarly the Kirata is mentioned along with Huna, Andhra, Pulinda, Pulkasa, Abhira, Sumbha, Yavana, members of the Khasa races in Srimad Bhagavatam. The Kirata is mentioned in the Ramayan in Ayodhya kanda's sarga 15 section, with their hair tied up in knots, shining like gold and pleasant to look upon, bold enough to move under water, terrible, veritable tiger-men, so are they famed. Similarly Kirata tribe was mentioned in Mahabharata on the Vanaparva section 39. The Kirata had been described as golden yellow people which are the skin color of modern Tripuri, though over the thousand of year of living in present Tripura the colour had changed more yellow to Dark golden. One of the most skilful archer of that time Eklabya was none than a Kirata. Bhima's wife Hadimba was a Kirata women and Ghototkoch of Mahabharata was a Kirata king, apart from the facts mentioned in the Rajmala that Tripuri king Trilochana had participated in the mythological Kurukshetra war.

http://www.tripura.org.in/origin.htm



Now from my own research;

Let me quote some paragraphs from the book by Suniti Kumar Chatterji.
The name Kirata is for the first time found in the Yajurveda (Sukla Yajurveda, Vajasaneya, XXX, 16;
also Krsna Yajurveda, Taittiriya Brahmana, III, 4,12,1).
In connexion with the Purusa-medha or ‘Man-Offering’ sacrifice, where a list of all kinds of human beings and animals symbolically or figuratively offered to the gods as sacrifice is given, we find the
following passage:–

guhabhyah Kiratam; sanubhyo Jambhakam; paravatebhyah Kimpurusam
which upon translation will read ‘A Kirata, for the caves; a Jambhaka (long-toothed man?) for the slopes; a Kimpurusa (an ugly man, a wild man, an ape?) for the mountains.’

Then
in the Atharvaveda (X,4,14) we have a reference to a Kirata girl
(Kairatika) who digs a herbal remedy on the ridges of the mountains:–

Kairatika kumarika saka khanati bhesajam:
hiranyayibhir abhribhir girinam upa sanusu.

‘The young maid of Kirata race, a little damsel, digs the drug:
Digs it with shovels wrought of gold on the high ridges of the hills.’
(Translation by R.T.Griffith.)

“Macdonell and Keith have the following note in their Vedic Index on Kirata:
‘Kirata is a name applied to a people living in the caves of the mountains, as appears clearly from the dedication of the Kirata to the caves in Vajasaneyi Samhita (also Taittiriya Brahmana), and from the reference to a Kirata girl, who digs a remedy on the ridges of the mountains.
The Manava Dharma-sastra regards the Kiratis as degraded Ksatriyas (ref. X, 44).’
When a non-Aryan or foreign people is describes in an old Indian text as being of degraded Kshatriya origin, there is always an implication that they were, to some extend at least, advanced in civilisation or military organisation”. — Suniti Kumar Chatterji (KIRATA-JANA-KRTI)

The book said the Kiratas were 'gold-like', i.e, yellow in color (and not dark or black like the Dasas
and Dasyus and the Nisadas and other pre-Aryan peoples of the plains).
Here's the quote from the the book taken from Kirata-parvan section of Varna-parvan of the Mahabharata.

Kairatam vesam asthaya kancana-druma-sannibham
"Taking up a Kirata resemblance, like unto a tree of gold" (IV,35,2);

dadarsatha tato jisnuh purusam kancana-prabham
"Then the Victorious One(Arjuna) saw a Man, shining like gold" (IV, 35,17)

na tvam asmin vana ghore bibhesi kanaka-prabha

“O thou that art shining like gold (addressing Siva in the form of
Kirata), dost thou not fear in this terrible forest” (IV, 35, 18)


The Ramayana also mentions the golden color of the Kiratas; thus

Kiratasca tiksna-cudasca hemabhah priya-darsanah,
antar-jala-cara ghora nara-vyaghra iti srutah
(Kiskindhya-Kanda, 40, 27, 28, qouted by N.N Vasu)
upon
translation is The Kiratas, with hair done in pointed top-knots,
pleasant to look upon, shining like gold, able to move under water, terrible, veritable tiger-men, so are they famed.

In Yoga Vasistha 1.15.5 Rama speaks of "kirAteneva vAgurA", "a trap [laid] by Kiratas", so about BCE Xth Century, they were thought of as jungle trappers, the ones who dug pits to capture roving deer. The same text also speaks of King Suraghu, the head of the Kiratas who is a friend of the Persian King, Parigha.

Secondly
The Kiratas in Sanskrit (Sanskrit: किरात) mentioned in early Hindu
texts are the tribals of the forest and mountains with this sanskrit
phrase “kiram atati bhramati yah” meaning one wandering over the forests.

There are two analogy from this findings:
1. All the non-aryan people in an ancient india were referred to as Kiratas.
2. That the Kiratas(Mongoloid) are the tribes/indigenous people of ancient India.

Now ladies and gentleman please get ready for more confusion and surprises. I too was shock and dumbfounded initially but you get to see the point and light slowly as we go on.
But this will be provided when i have the time. stay tune then!

Now we know who the Kiratas were, ASK
where and when did they first arrived in ancient India?
and
what contributions did they make in the early civilizations of India and Nepal?

work cited:
KIRATA-JANA-KRTI
The Indo-Mongoloids:
Their Contribution to the History and Culture of India
by Suniti Kumar Chatterji (1951)

see you soon,
JPG

Last edited: 25-Apr-09 01:00 PM

 
Posted on 04-23-09 8:03 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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jpeg, do not take it to your heart, but brother citing
websites will never make your research authentic. Today some info  are there and tomorrow they are not there that
is the nature of internet sources. They are often misleading as well as sometime
I find them commercial. That is why information posted on website are not
considered credible in  research f. You can cite journals, articles
which are published already and if that is posted on the website then that is
OK. I am advising you because you are doing some kind of research on history,
but you have to be very careful about it. Tomorrow you might want to publish
your article in some journal but then if you are citing webistes they will not publish your
article as your references includes more websources , nor anyone in the
research field will give you credit for your hard work, nor you will be able to defend your arguments. If you are taking any
course related to research method (assuming you are graduate student) then you
should know this, if your professor is not telling you this fact then ask him
about this issue. In haste does not copy paste info from net they might be
valuable but won’t be considered authentic.  This is the reason I was bit critical about
you. But no offense.Good luck with your research! 


 
Posted on 04-24-09 1:56 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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Now ladies and gentleman please get ready for more confusion and surprises. I too was shocked and
dumbfounded initially but you get to see the point and light slowly.
Now we know who the Kiratas were, where and when did they first arrived in ancient India?



The term “Kirat” and its origin through scholars

A glowing tribute on the studies of language, literature and the general history of Kirat people has very well been paid by the well versed scholar late Mr. Brian Hodgson in this way, "The Kirati on account of their distinctly traceable antiquity as a nation and the peculiar structure of their language are perhaps the most interesting of all the Himalayan races". Besides that, an intellectual luminary Dr. S. K. Chatterjee in his competent work, "Kirat Janakriti" mentions that Buddha, who is considered as one of the greatest leaders and teachers of mankind, was thought to be of pure or of mixed Kirat origin. "Many of us are not as yet alive to the nature and importance of the problem. Closer study through the various human sciences should be carried on with greater intensity through linguistics, through
sociology, through anthropology, through political history and through comparative religion". Although these scholars during their times could not get enough opportunities to utilize a good number of primary sources in the form of MSS and colophons on the subjects of Kirat studies, the present author is thankful for their painstaking efforts that have been taken on the present subject. However, now there
is a vast storage of Kirat MSS in Kirat s. Among them are the MSS in the, “Srijunga or Limbu", s and the, "Rong or Lepcha" s and the treatment of the present subject is based on these sources. In fact, the term Kirat is a corrupt form of Kiriat, Kiryat or Kirjath which means a fort or town in Moabite language of the Mediterranean region. When their number increased, they built many forts and towns and called them Kiriat-hime, Kiryat-yarim, Kirjath-arba, Kiryat-baal,
Kiryat-hujro, Kiryat-sanna and Kiryat-sapher which indicate the meaning of the town or fort of the forest, or the town of the god Baal, or the town of books, or the town of palm trees. The residents of the above noted towns started calling themselves, “Kereti” which later on became
Keretite or the Kerite tribe. The ancestors of this tribe if identified, comes to Nahor; the younger brother of Abraham, a resident of Ur in Babylon. He belonged to the Semitic family. When the Hebrew people under the leadership of Moses, invaded their country, they were defeated and expelled from their native land. The Kereti people then led a nomadic life and spread towards the eastern and north-eastern countries. In 2400 BC, a branch of which came to Mesopotamiaor the Assyrian country, intermingled with the Ashur people and formed one nation with them. Later on they migrated to Northern India and the Himalayan region via Media and Nisa of Northern Persia with the title
of the Kirat-Ashur tribe. But in Nisa they were called Khambos or Yavan and claimed their descent from the Greeks of the Ionian island. In the Sanskrit book of Yogini Tantra, the Kirat nationality is included among the Yavan, Pallava, Koch and Pulinda races. The Greeks had also known the Kirats by the name of Kirhadai. The last remnant of the ancient Kiratite or Cherethite tribe
was found recorded in the book of 2 Samuel, 15 - 18. They were a martial tribe during the reign of the Syrian King David in 1049 BC.

    There is no doubt that the Kirat-Ashur people came to North India earlier than the Aryans yet they had known them very well in Persia. As the Assyrian country was mountainous and the Kirat-Ashur
people were great hunters, they preferred to live in the mountainous countries of Kabul, Kashmir, Karakoram and all the Himalayan regions, though some of them migrated to the Indian plains and lived there for about twelve generations. "There were certain principalities which were definitely styled as Nishada in the epic and Alavaka in the Pali Texts and were doubtless of non-Aryan origin." Buddhist writers refer to other Yakkha Principalities besides Alavaka." The Kirat Vansavali mentions that after twelve generations, one branch of Kirat people migrated from the Indo-Gangetic plains to the Himalayan region and the other branch to Lanka or Ceylon to the south. It is for this reason that some scholars admire to find one of the aboriginal tribes of Ceylon with the name of, “Yakho” similar to the Yakkha-tribe of Eastern Kirat people of Nepal. The origin of the Kirat peopleof Nepal can be traced back in combination of three races. According to the Kirat Mundhum or tradition, three races are known by the names of Khambongbas or the Khambos, the Tangsangthas or the Mongols and the Munaphens or the Chinese. The Khambongbas or the Khambos were the first immigrants to this Himalayan region. The Tangsangthas or the Mongols and the Munaphens or the Chinese people came in later periods and intermingled with the Khambos and constituted a big human race. They spread from this Himalayan region to India, Burma, Syam, Vietnam, Malaya and Philippine islands,established their kingdoms and kept their respective records of history. In India, Kirat people occupied
the regions from Himachal Pradesh to Assam in the north and from Manipur to Chittangong in south-east. Read some examples as i have provided in the earlier post.

    Sir John Hammerton in his book called “Early Races of Mankind", mentions that probably in the 4000 BC, there was a civilized race of mankind on the lower Euphrates of the Mediterranean region described as Mongolian or Summerian of the Cheldean. They had their own independent forts or towns. They used to fight for their border line and had erected an inscribed stone pillar of agreement in the middle of their boundaries. The defeated town never agreed to live under their enemies. They used to quit their native place for good and migrate to other countries. In like manner, in about 3000 BC, a big horde of people left their native place and came to the east and established the Chinese Empire. In the Kirat folk-lore of Kabul or Golku, it is said that the Hazara tribe of Kabul and the Kirat tribe of Nepal were of the same group in the beginning when they first came from Persia. Later on,
the news of the prosperous country of the Indian plains tempted the Leader of the group, the elder brother of the Hazara tribe, Laley Hang. They came to the India plains just for a visit and returned back. But they instead of going back to Kabul, went ahead into Nepal and came to be known as Gorkhas. The Hazara people say that so long as they were in one family, they were neither Muhammaden nor Hindu; but when the brothers separated, they became weak and the Pathans invaded their country, defeated them and converted them into Muhammadanism. The Kirat Gurkhas of Nepal, however, became Hindus. Even till this day, whenever a Hazara meets a Gorkha, he calls him Chacha, which means uncle.When the Aryans came to India for the first time and started to
advance towards the hilly regions, they had to fight against a Kirat-Ashur king whose kingdom was situated on the bank of river Indus in the Himalayas. His name was Shamba Ashur. He was defeated in the battle, so he left his place and came towards the east and established a stronghold in the Kinner land which is now known by the name of Himachal Pradesh in India. In this place, a horde of Mongolian people came and intermingled with this stock of Kirat people and constituted one big Kirat race. Gradually they spread towards the east and settled in Nepal.
In my next research findings a nation which is known as Nepal today will start to slowly take shape
followed by intrigue tribal practices and religions unfold before your very own eyes.



work referenced:
Essays relating to Indian Subjects, 1880, London by B. Hodgson, page 397

Kirat Janakriti, 1951, Calcutta, ASB by Dr. S. K. Chatterjee. Page 92

New Biblical Atlas of London Religious Tract Society, London, page 78

The History of Nations - Assyrians by Leonard W. King, Page 271

The Assyrian History by Leonard W. King, M.A.,FSA, page 272

Prachin Bharat ka Rajnitic aur Sanskritik Itihas by Rati Bhanu Singh Nahar, page 231

Old Testament, 2 Samuel 15 - 18 and Biblical Atlas, page 22

Kirat Vansavali. The Political History of Ancient India by H.C. Ray Chowdhary, page 197-199

The Kirat Itihas, 1948, Kalimpong by I.S. Chemjong, page 8, 14

Early Races of Mankind by Sir John Hammerton, Vol. I, page 434


love,
         jpg








Last edited: 24-Apr-09 02:05 PM

 
Posted on 04-24-09 9:15 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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Just for your thoughts folks! Think about it and do some soul searching!
I come back when time permits with my research study. This is the eye opener!

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


"Hindu Religion Is Religion OF Kirant"

By Chandra Prakash Sunuwar
Dhobighat, Lalitpur, Kathmandu
Email: [email protected]

The Hindu religion:
There are different opinions regarding of the birth of Hindu religion. There is literally a tug of war between the scholars’ one in favour of Dravidian origin and other of Aryan origin. There is hardly any third opinion on that though a small section feels that it has originated from indigenous tribal of India. This is because no great man of this origin had ever tried to write or researched to claim that Hindu religion is born from their indigenous tribal faith. According to The greatest historian of Tripura state whose name is DR DEV BURMAN In his research One group of kiranti who ruled and left in Tripura state they still succeed to protect their kirant language intact from ancient kiranti language which is language of Borok race who live in Tripura state of India because this kiranti people were none stop ruled since 5000 years in northern India till British East India company which is later involved in British colony. Earlier the name of Tripura was Kiratbhumi, it's capital was in Tribeg. It means land of Kirat, the Tripuris used to be called previously. the word 'Tripura' originated from the king Tripur who happens to rule the state. According to the legend Tripur was the 39th descendent of Druhya, who was descendent of Yayati kirant, one of the lunar race kings. He was so mighty that he ordered his subjects not to worship any god other than him, had no faith in god. He started torturing the subjects who defies his order. People fled in a body escape from his tyranny to near by state of Hiramba (Cachar).The history of Tripura is very old. It dates back to the era of the Mahabharata. The name of the Tripura was mentioned in the the above epic along with the states like Manipur, Kamrup (Assam) etc. no doubt it was none other than present Tripura, though its location has changed from its past. Tripura's name is also mentioned in the list of states that was mentioned in the Ashoka's pillar that is now reserved in Saranath. Hiuen Tsang also mentioned in his travelogue about the presence of great Boro/Borok kirant kingdom in the east of Bengal. The 'Tripura' is a small kingdom, unattached with British of India. It was an independent country till the merger with union of India in 1949 A.D. There are different opinion and explanation about the origin of word Tripura among scholars and historian.

First of all the word Hindu it self has root to non-aryan Kirata or Borok origin with Sindu or Chindi
river through the Indus civilisation, is not at all the Indo-Aryan one. Secondly the theory of Hindu religions birth from indo-Aryan faith is null and void by the following facts. Let us look at the list of names of Gods which the Indo-Aryan people had brought when they invaded Indus civilisation. Rig-veda has all the names of god which the Indo-Aryan used to worship when they first came to India. Their faith and philosophy were based on these gods only. The rituals, procedure and
hymn etc were detailed in the sacred text of Vedas. Some of the primary and powerful gods mentioned in the Rig-Vedas are Indra, Agni, Varun, Vrihaspati, Brahma, Arundhati, Soma, Vayu, Aswin, Rhitu, Marut, Rudra, Ribhus, Savitar, Brahmanspati. But in the present day Hindu religion none of the Vedic god is worshipped in India. The Brahma is the only one tha had temple at Puskar in Rajasthan, and he too does not have any day fixed through out a year. ARAD who was post man of Aryan. He doesn’t have any temple and not worshiped. There is no god of Aryan or Vedic origin in the list of Hindu Gods of modern India, other than doubtfully the Vishnu which is considered to be origin of Dravidian. In Dravidian language Bisnu Means god of BLUE SKY,CLOUD AND VAST SEA. On the contrary none of the Hindu gods of modern India is mentioned or had a place in Vedas. These facts clearly prove that the Hindu religion and its gods are neither born from Aryan faith nor derived from Vedic gods and philosophy.

The major Ancient Civilizations:

There were four major civilizations in the world, all of which were founded in Asia. These were: Chinese, Egyptian, and Mesopotamia and Indus civilization. All the civilizations were interrupted by unknown circumstance other than Chinese civilization which is continuing till date.

Indus civilization:
The civilization of Chinese, Egyptian and Mesopotamia were of homogenous group of people, where as the Indus civilization was found to be comprised of heterogeneous group of human race. The skulls found of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro belonged to proto-australoid, Mongoloid, Mediterranean and Alpine races. This clearly proved that the mongoloid were also part of the Indus civlisation. The proto-australoid were ancestor of modern day’s Santal, Kol, Bhil, Munda etc. tribes of central India, Mediterranean were ancestor of modern day’s Tamil, Telegu, etc. but no skull was found of from the site of excavation belonging to Aryan people.

Who are the descendants of

Mongoloid living during Indus civilization in present day in India?
These are none other than the present day’s indo-mongoloid people or the Kirata or the Borok race living in India namely, Himalyan mongoloid tribes, Kinnours, Spitian, Lahuli, Koch, Mech, Bodo, Rabha, Garo, Tiwas, Dimasa, Kachhari, Karabi, Tripuri etc.



Other Proof of Kirata living in the Indus valley

By the name of rivers in Indus valley:

There were many rivers that passed through the Indus civilization. According to famous ethnologist Cunningham any river whose name ends with ti or di indicates that it was once inhabited by Sino-Tibetan race. Most of the river name of Indus valley were in Borok/Kirata origin, for examples the ‘Ravi river’ was earlier Rawa-ti, ‘Bias river’ was Nyang-ti, ‘satlez’ was-Zong-ti, ‘Para river’ was Para-ti, Saraswati was Solsolti, Gomati was Gomati, Jammu tawi was Jomuti/Somti, Tapti etc. It clearly proofs that once in the ancient time these valleys were inhabited by Sino-Tibetan or Borok race. On the contrary there is no river whose name begins or ends with ti or di in the southern part of
India, beyond the Bindhya parbat, which had never been inhabited by the Borok race.


Name of rivers and Places in the Sub-Himalayan region:

There are numerous examples that proves that Borok race once lived in the Himalyan region. Places name: Dehradoon>Di-ran-doong, Teheri>Tiyari, Kampti fall >Kapti > Kaptwi, Khumbu valley>Khumuk valley, Tripura Sundari Temple in Kulu etc.


Rivers Name:
Bhagirathi>Bagroti, Gangutri>Gungti, Yamunatri>Yungti, Tista>Twisuta, Tursa>Twiursa, Riang twima, Terai>Twirai etc. These rivers flows from the Uttrakhand to North Bengal in sequences.

Anthropological evidences:

There are many ethnological evidences that there was once habitation of Borok or Kirata race in the Indus valley. If through research and search are being carried out, there will be definite traces of Borok race in the Pakistan around the Indus area even now. The Kinnours, Lahuli etc. are still living in the Himachal Pradesh, who are none but Tibeto-Burman origin and are the people of Borok race who were left back at the time of migration. Similarly there are Rungsa who are still living in the Pithoragarh district of Uttaranchal whose mother tongue had been clubbed with Tripura language in the 1991 census and who claim to be Tibeto-Burman descendant. This Rungsa is none but the previous
form of Reangsa of Tripuri Sub-tribe, who were left behind at the times of migration. There are many small tribes of Tibeto-burman Kirata race who are scattered in the Himalayan region.


Route of migration of Kirata people in the Indian continent:

From the Dadiwan area of China a group migrated to head water of Yangtze river around 7000 years ago. Then our ancestors migrated from this Yangtze river head to the site of Indus or Chindi river valley through Khyber pass around 6000 years ago, that is 4000 BC and founded the Indus valley civilization along with Proto-australoid and Mediterranean people. This civilization flourished between 4000-1900 BC. The Kirata or indo-mongoloid might have been the ruler of sindhu civilization as history proves that mongoloid race founded most of mighty empire in the past. When the Aryan nomadic tribes invaded Indus valley riding on the horse, the Borok race could not resist them and
had to migrate towards the east along the path of sub-Himalyan region. Where as the Dravidian migrated to the south and the Australoid migrated to the east and middle of India. The Borok or Kirata migrated through Punjab, Jammu, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Nepal, north Bengal, Assam, Dimapur, Kachhar and finally reached in the present state of Tripura 1400 years ago, and then up to Coast of Bay of Bengal at Chittagong hill tract. On the way of migration many tribes were left behind who in the course of time formed a distinct tribes, but there linguistic and ethnic relation still exist. The descendant of kirata/Borok race are Sunuwar,rai,limbu,yakha,Kinnours, Rungsa, Koch,
Mech, Hajong, Rabha, Bodo, Garo, Tiwas, Chutia, Karbi, Dimasa, Kachhari, and Tripuri. Another Antropology evidence is One group of kirata people Migrated from Hunan provience of china through upper course of yantse king river and Western Whwang ho river to Straight down to Assam valley and they start to rule from there. Another Branch of kirata start to migrate through western Himalayas and came to Nepal. This Kirata group came from Assyrian country(Syria) in the Mediterranean region. Look at my earlier posted research work.

Kirata in Ancient Religious Text, Epic and Mythology:

Rajmala mentions that Tripuri used to be known as Kirata in older times. The root word of Kirata is not clear, it may be Kwrak, meaning strong, or Kirithaya>Kiritya>Kirata what is fearless. Kirata is
mentioned in the Yajur and Atharva Veda. Similarly the Kirata is mentioned along with Huna, Andhra, Pulinda, Pulkasa, Abhira, Sumbha, Yavana, members of the Khasa races in Srimad Bhagavatam. The Kirata is mentioned in the Ramayan in Ayodhya kanda’s sarga 15 section, with their hair tied up in knots, shining like gold and pleasant to look upon, bold enough to move under water, terrible, veritable tiger-men, so are they famed. Similarly Kirata tribe was mentioned in Mahabharata on the Vanaparva section 39. The Kirata had been described as golden yellow people which are the skin color of modern Tripuri,sunuwar,rai,limbu though over the thousand of year of living in present Tripura the colour had changed more yellow to Dark golden.Even though we kirata and Chinese were the same race present day of kirata are not golden yellowy like Chinese people because of our geography,food style etc. One of the most skill full archer of that time Eklabya was none than a Kirata, Bhima’s wife Hadimba was a Kirata women and Ghototkoch of Mahabharata was a Kirata king, apart from the
facts mentioned in the Rajmala that Tripuri kirant king Trilochana had participated in the mythological Kurukshetra war.


Gods of Hindu Religion:

The gods most widely worshipped and celebrated to day in India are, 1) Shiva and in his various forms and manifestations. 2) Parvati and her various forms and manifestation. 3) Children of Shiva and Parvati, they are (i) Lakshmi, (ii) Saraswati (iii) Ganesh (ivy) Kartika 4) Vishnu and his various incarnations. 5) Various Guru as Demi-gods who are considered as incarnation or birth of different gods.


Vishnu is considered by the scholars as the originally god of Dravidian people and have derived
from word ‘Vin’ who was god of sun and sky of Dravidian. He was mentioned in the later book of Rig-Veda, when he was accepted in the Vedic faiths.


Gods of Indus civilisation:

The most important archaeological finding of Harappa gods is Pashupati, an image of god seated with buffalo, tiger, elephant deer etc, with head gear made of buffalo horn. He is identified with the present day Hindu god Shiva. There were also female gods’ terracotta and images found in the excavation of Indus civilisation. These are the gods of Indus people that used to be worshipped during Indus civilisation.There are many places in the north India and sub-Himalayan area whose names are indication that the area had once been inhabited by the Indo-mongoloid races ‘Bodo/borok’ branch. Prof. Suniti Kr. Chatterjee in his famous book of Kirat-Jana-Kriti mentioned that there was a city of Kiradu, now ruined, with its 27 temple in the western border of Rajasthan near the Indus civilization site. It means that the city was inhabited and founded by Kirata people. There was also a hamlet named ‘hathma’ or ‘hatma’ meaning wide land in Tripuri language, suggestive of Boro/k people’s inhabitation in the Indus valley region. The capital city of India, Delhi is also considered to be derivatives of Kirata /Borok word dwi-lili>Dilli. There are plenty of similar examples in Assam like Dibrugor, Dihong, Digboi Dimapur, and many more.

Aryan Invaded Indus Civilization:

The Aryan invaded India some time around 1700 BC, the Indus civilization ruined around same time. There were plenty of examples that the Aryan destroyed the Indus civilization and plundered the
citizens, the Australoid, mongoloid of Indus valley. There are several wars mentioned in Rig-Veda, Indra was the strongest king of Aryan who destroyed many forts, so he was termed as Purander in Veda. The excavation of Mahenjo-daro and Harappa had discovered many of human skeleton buried in one place indicate that these people were buried in one place after being killed. Finding of skeleton of children further confirms that Indus civilization was plundered and destroyed by
external enemy. So the citizen of Indus valley i.e., the Austric race was forced to migrate to wards east and middle of India, Dravidian in the south and the Mongoloid in the north and north east of India.


Sanskrit name in Mythology:

Most of the names of mythological period were meaning less even in Sanskrit. Many Bodo words
have been absorbed in Sanskrit and Sanskritised like, Towi(Twi), Bokkho(bwkha), Ling(lwi), Ahong(Ang) ma(ma means no) Mukkho(mwkhang) Samudru (som-dru) Raja (Rai-cha>raja, becoming head of tribes) and the list goes on. The following words seems like more of the Kirata
origin, like the Daksh, Yayati, Druhyu, Nahus, Ayu, Babhru, Brisaparva, Drun, Kunti, Dhrupati, etc. These names indicates that it had been corrupted form the Borok/Bodo words to suite the Aryan tongue. So the mythological and historical person were of Borok kirant race.


Who are Chandra dynasty descendant?

It is generally known that Chandra was a Aryan king and the modern days Rajputs of north India are the descendant of the king Chandra. But we have to trace the root scientifically with available historical records and explain it logically.

1) It is accepted by the

historian fraternity that the Mahabharata war occurred around 1400 BC. Yudhisthir was the king from Pandav and the king of Tripura participated in favour of Duryudhan. According to Rajmala records King Trilochana or Subrai is contemporary of Yudhisthir. He is 47th in succession from Chandra; Yudhisthir was also around the same in the in succession from Chandra. If we take average 25 years of generation age then 46X25=1150 years. Now 1400+1150=2550 years that is king Chandra
was ruling India around 2250BC. On the contrary it is historical fact that the Aryan came in India between 1700-1500 BC, so there was no Aryan before 1700 BC in India, than how can the Chandra be Aryan king?? That means Chandra was non-Aryan king, not as claimed most of people.

2) On the other side, the

Rajputs as we know today are descendent of Scythic tribes, who came from central Asia and invaded India around 400 BC. Mulchand Chauhan, in the book of ‘Scythic origin of Rajputs Race’ stated taking the reference of ethnographer Col Todd "It is a singular fact that there is no available date beyond the 4th century for any of the great Rajput families, all of whom are brought from the North. This was the period of one of the grand irruptions of the Getic races from Central Asia-’.
So the present Rajputs of Rajasthan and other Kshatriya can not be the descendant of Chandra who ruled India 2550 BC. On the contrary the ancestor of Tripuri king, Chandra who was there at around to be a Kirata king is plausible from the evidences and the historical facts avail able with us.

3) Origin of word Chandra:
It is a proven fact that many Kirata words had been Sanskritised and absorbed in the pool of Sanskrit word. For example one of the synonyms for water in Sanskrit is Towi, which is Bodo/borok word origin. There are many words absorbed but needs to be researched. There is one more example how indo-mongoloid name had been changed to Sanskrit name. The famous Kushanas kings were Mongoloid Yueh-chi tribe form frontier of China, which had been Sanskritised from Kuei-shang>Kushan in India. The mightiest dynasty of India Mughal derived its name from Mongol (Persian Mughal), Sukrai Ochai converted to Sukracharya. Similarly the original Sanskrit meaning of the word Chandra is "big bright and luminous" which in Tripuri language is "chwngtor" means moon which is bright big and luminus. This kokborok word "chwngtor" for moon had been modified to 'chandro', and absorbed into Sanskrit for moon, Chwnngtoro>Chongdro> Chandra. It is from this kokborok kirat word the chandro word had been taken in sanskrit and the dyanasty of Chandra had started form this kokborok word.

4) Pandavs were Mongoloid. The
claim of Pandav and Kaurav as Aryan descendant is a doubtful illogical arguments, rather favour to be mongoloid origin. 1) Polyandry among Pandav (a women having many husbands) was not common among Aryans, not found in any other history or mythology. But it is very common and still in practice among the Kinnours, Lahuli, and Spitian Drukpa Himalayan mongoloid tribes. 2) Bhima drank blood of Dushasan is suggestive of barbarian mongoloid. 3) Kunti>Kungti, Dhrupati>Durupti are suggestive of Borok/ Bodo name like Kosomti, Kufuti, Chikonti, Khumbati etc. 4) A Mongolian tribe in the Himachal Pradesh clams to be descendant of Duryudhan 5) After the war the Pandavs went to heaven where a dog is supposed to have lead them, indicating by that their home was at Himalayan hills. When they go to SWARGA DHARI to go swarg they went nepal still you can see SWARGA DWARI
in MANANG and MUSTANG.The Pandav were supposed to have been burnt in Laksha Griha which is nothing but thatch which is abundant in hill region of Himalaya, that means they were inhabited some where in Himalayan. So these facts prove that the war of Mahabharata was between
Mongoloid brothers.Arjuna married with naga kiranti lady of manipur. Mahabharata tradition of being the seat of the Naga king Citravahana, whose daughter Citrangada was married with arjuna. Arjunas another wife was also naga kiranti lady whose name was Ulupi. how come he married kiranti lady when he was Aryan in that time?Same thing Bhima’s wife was Hadimba who was kiranti lady. He too why he need to marry kirant lady not marrying Aryan lady?Same thing Ghatotkacha of Mahabharata fame (Son of Bhima) was a Kirata Chieftain that means father himself was kiranta origion just Aryan people hijacked them as Aryan.

Still most of the hilly mongoloied tribe worship PANCH PANDAV in many different way.Almost every kiranti village has vimsen than{vimsen temple}and when the pandav fight and travel all the places were in kirant desh or hilly region like KICHAK BAD which bhima killed kichak was place in jhapa in nepal same thing Mahabharata war itself happen in kirat desh, land of kirant.
In those periods, Nepal was referred to as Kirat Desh in the vedic literature.
Normally when the kiranti people worship Bhima they offer sacrifice of BUFFALLO AND GOATS.If he was Aryan, he was not suppose to offer Buffalo sacrifice because they don’t eat buffalo in their culture.There is still Mahavarata hill in nepal where the place is densely populated by kirata.so it can prove that this is war between mongoloid kings.

The Origin of Shiva:
The word Shiva has root in the Kirata or Borok race, not in the Vedas becaugse Shiva as god is not mentioned in it Rather mentioned as simple kirant god,destructive of Aryan and animal. Shiva is hybrid of two Kirata words, simani means Gyan or knowledge and Kaiba, means five, i.e. Si+Ba=Siba>Siva>Sibarai>Sibrai . That means a god who has knowledge of five elements of life, that is earth, fire, water, air, and sky, that is cosmic rays which forms the life. That is one who has
created life in this world or creator of life in the world. Other meaning can be one who made us perceive or feel five senses in our body, that is who is the soul of the boy. It is this Sibrai converted
to Shivai in Sanskrit. From this five shiva is said to have five face and named as “Panchanan.”

In Bodo culture he is known as Bathubrai, meaning king of collection of five elements of earth, fire, water, air and sky, that means creator, the supreme god. The other meaning can apply in this case also. So the god Shiva is originally god of Borok/ Kirata race not that of Aryan or Dravidian.

The other name of Mahadev is direct translation of Mutai kotor, the supreme god of Tripuri people
and first among the fourteen gods. The mutai kotor or Subrai is considered as supreme creator of this universe and the life in the earth in the mythology of Tripuri people. This fact had been finally accepted in the Indian mythology and Shiva had been placed above the Vishnu and Brahma of trinity gods.

Feature of Shiva the Creator:

1) His home or abode is in the

Himalaya only, namely Amarnath, Badrinath, Hardwar, Kedaranath, Kailash mansarover and many more. It is again home of Kirata or borok race.

2) Fond of wine, ganja, dhatura who remains intoxicated most of time.

3) Fond of meat and non-vegeterean foods.

4) He is half naked, wearing skin of tiger in the loin only, rudraskha or dudrai mala in neck.

5) Living with Snakes and other animals.

6) His symbol is crescent moon, a symbol of Chandra dynasty, Trishul in hand.

7) He is wandering god, living with different ghost in the cremation ground; body is smeared with ash of cremation.

8) Hair is uncombed, unclean body, with horn pipe in hand, and dumbru in other.

9) He is short tempered, mighty, courageous, does not think of consequences, destructives.

10) Easily convincible, compassionate, merciful, big hearted as termed Ashutosh or Bholenath which is nature of kirant.

11) Living with wife, who is Parvati or Haichwkma, goddess of Hill.

12) His animal carrier was originally buffalo, which was later converted to Ox by Aryan people, as
found in Indus valley. *The buffalo is still the carrier of Shiva in Tibet, China, and Japan proves that it was originally of Kirata god.

13) Worshiped by offering wine, animal sacrifice, and water is poured in the Shiva linga.

All the above feature of the Shiva suggest that he was the god of Kirata race initially but later modified to suit the Aryan faith or belief. And he was termed as one of the Hindu god and his carrier animal had been changed from buffalo to ox.


Origin of Shiva Ling:
There are many explanation of origin of the Shiva linga worshipping and the origin of word linga. But none of the explanation given in the Puran convincing and logical. On the other hand if we explain according to Tripuri custom and belief it can be explained for both. The Kirata are not expert in making idol and never worshiped idol so also the Aryan are. In ancient time people used to worship small linga shaped stone symbolizing as god Shiva specially in the jungle. They used to pour water, sacrificed animals in front of it and smear blood on it. This is still in practice in Tripura among the Tripuri people. This stone is represented as image of Shiva among Tripuri. Such type of example is one Holong mutai in west Tripura interior hill of Boromura. It is very popular and lots of devotee of Tripuri people pay visit every year.

This Holong is pronounces as Hlong in Riang dialect and was also among other Tripuri people in the past three thousand years ago. This word hlong is converted to hlong>hling> ling in later period by the Aryans to suit their tongue. This way Shiva had been worshiped in the form of shiv-ling by Aryans, which was nothing but Holong mutai representing Shiva of Borok race.

Other thing kirata were nature worshiper and they used to worship linga and yoni since ancient time so it can prove that linga and yoni worship religion is kirant religion because noble truth is that without linga and yoni there is no creation so aryans accepted this and involve in their religion.

Other name of Shiva:
Shiva has many name, one such name is Kirateshwar means god of Kirat people, so it also proves that Shiva is god of kirant race. His another name is ‘Hor’, it does not have meaning in Sanskrit other than to steal, where as it has a most significant and powerful meaning as ‘fire’ which lord Shiva appropriately deserves, as he is the most powerful like fire, from which these universe had been created. The slogan raised for him as “Hor-hor Bhom-bhom” has no literal meaning in Indian languages, but it has the meaning full explanation in Tripuri language, as big burning flames of fire! One more name is Tripureshwar, meaning god of Tripura. The other name is Tripurari, which means killer of Tripur. According to Rajmala and mythology also the king Tripur of Tripura was killed by Shiva, so he is termed as Tripurari or enemy of Tripur. All these facts indicate that Shiva was in fact god of Kirata, god of Hindu origin not the Aryan Vedic god. Even in Bed very beginning he was mentioned as simple god of kirata and who bring the pain in animals and destructive force who can travel in air but later he is promoted as MAHADEVA in PURANIC time.

The origin of Parvati:
The goddess Parvati had been directly translated from the Kirata of Borok word Haichwk ma or the goddess of hills, and accordingly worshipped by the Aryan. This goddess is also not mentioned in the Vedas either in name or in any of its form. It purely represents the goddess of Kirata race. In the mythology of Parvati’s birth had been described in many ways, and none is convincing and are contradictory each other. So it clearly proves that Parvati was not goddess of Aryan people but
originally goddess of Borok kirant race.

According to Tripuri mythology, she lives in the hill and owner of hill and hills belonging including the animals. She keeps animal under her custody and domestic animals including human are not excluded from it. If she desires so she can take away any animal and human and hide it from owner, which she releases only after receiving offers. She is also the Kamlapati in the famous Boro Kwina ni mutai. Again she is also considered as the consort of lord Shiva who is almighty owner of universe. The same is described in the main land Hindu mythology.


Abode of Parvati:
According to the Tripuri mythology and faith she lives in the jungle and all the high hills. She is worshipped in the jungle only even today. The same theory is found among the main land Hindu also. Where as no Aryan prefers to live in the hill or jungle, where as the Kirata loves to live in jungle and the hill times since immemorial and their god and goddess are always considered to be hill and jungle dweller, so is the goddess of Parvati and Shiva. Parvati or the Vaishnu devi home is none other than in the peak of Himalaya. Other than this different manifestation of Parvati’s and her temple like Chamunda, Hadimba, Tripura Sundari and many more are situated in the hills of Himalaya. These facts clearly prove that Parvati was originally goddess of Kirata and later absorbed in to the main Hindu fold.

Other name of Parvati:

One of the several names of Parvati is Kirati, which means goddess of Kirata people. The other name given was Kiratini again means that Parvati or Durga is goddess of Kirata origin. After giving these many examples there can not exist any doubt the Kirata origin of Parvati.Parvatis father was HIMALAYA That time only kirata people used to live in Himalayan slope.We can find story in SWASTHANI BRATA KATHA which siba and parvati having disguise themselves as KIRANT AND KIRANTNI and living in SLESH MANTAK BAN IN PASHUPATINATH. That means they were pure kiranti origin whatever the Aryan people did to change her as Aryan god it cannot work and hide from being kiranti.

Manifestation as Uma:

One of the names of Parvati is Uma. This name is also not mentioned in any of the Vedas. So it is not the vedic goddess. The origin and the birth of word Uma is also full of conflicting and contradictory in the Purana. But it is very clear according to Tripuri faith and mythology. The goddess of earth or the state is termed as Ama by us, meaning by my mother goddess. The Tripureshwari Goddess is called as simply Ama or sakani ama that mother of south. This word Ama had been corrupted to Ama>Uma by the Aryan and symbolized with Parvati. It is so simple, logical and rational to explain rather than taking tortuous route. Also CHANDI DEVI is another form of durga or parvati is considered mighty
kiranti lady. Still today Kirant people like rai and sunuwar in Nepal, Assam and Sikkim celebrate chandi naach to worship mother goddess who is none other than Durga.


Origin of goddess Durga:

Like the origin and explanation of all of the gods and goddess of Hindu in the Puran are contradictory and conflicting, this one is also facing the same. Neither of the explanation is satisfactory. She had not been mentioned in the Vedas and not worshipped during the vedic period. So she is also the goddess of Kirata people. There is one interesting fact to note that, one small idol of Goddess Tripureshwari is placed just on left side of main idol even now. This idol used to be carried out at the time of war by the commanders and placed first in the fort or durgo in the war field. She was first worshipped and then preceded for war. So she is the protector of durgo, from this durgo the ward and form of Durga had come into being in modern day.

First Celebration of Durga:

Durga puja in the modern form was first celebrated by Koch king Kongsha Narayan in the 16th century, who was descendant of Borok race. Similarly there is a Durga mandir in the Dimapur which was built by the Dimasa King. The Tripura king had their Durga mandir near their palace
since the ancient time. There were many coins of Tripura kings discovered with Durga image proves that it was goddess of Tripuri people. First the image of Durga was found in the coins of Kushan or Kuei-shang king dating back to 1st century AD. It was later found in subsequent kings. So Durga was goddess of the Kirata or Borok kings and Borok race in name & form, a goddess of war and victory, which was later accepted by the people of other races.According to religion book,Once Rakshasas ruled Heaven{mountain kingdom like KASHMIRE,NEPAL
ETC}and sacked INDRA AND OTHER DEV Aryan people.Their leader was MAHISHASHUR who came to fight with riding on MAHISH[buffaloo}.Later who was killed by goddess DURGA Kiranti lady In favour of aryans.It seems aryans always succeed to use kiranti people even in past.They worship kirant god SIVA,DURGA,CHANDI,KALI but ignore other kirant people and decendent of these god and goddest. Probaly mahishashur itself must be kirata or other mongoloied tribe because this kind of buffalo riding things done in southern china,Vietnam,Cambodia and other mongoloied
country OR it must be someone aborigional people like astro-Asiatic people or Dravidian people.There is 100% sure durga is not god of Aryan.When they go to ask for the help of god siva Aryan deva were seems using unbelievable words which mahadev can’t say no himself even
he knows dev Aryans were wrong for war.Such flattering word like “HARE MAHADEV,TRI LOK ADHI PATI,KARUNA KO KHANI DAYAKO SAGAR,ANTARYAMI,JYOTIRNA MAYA SAKTI,TRINETRA DHARI,PRAVUKO HAMI TUCHCHA PRANI CHARAN KAMALMA CHAU HAMI,RAKSHA GARA HEY BHOLE BOM”Because of this kind of highly flatter able word made him compelled to Help them. In short, Lord Siva does not discriminate anybody. Lord Siva gives blessings to any person who worship him. This can be seen later when Arjun is given blessing by Lord Siva before the great war. But in Nepal and India, dalits and untouchable cannot even enter Lord Pashupathinath temple or other hindu temple. This was not a teachings of Kirata Lord.

In Very beginning in Veda Aryan mention him as ordinary kirant god but later promoted him as supreme god of all in puranic time because of his power. Some example like in veda mentioning like this {BHASMESWORE KIRATA DEVA,PASHUMA HANI PURAUNE,VAYUMA BICHARAN GARNE,TRASKO DEVATA,PISHACHA,MANAV MA DUKHA LEWNE ---- In Translation it says god of destroyer,horror who bring pain in animal and human who travel in air like dark cloud}You know such hates horror god of Aryan later promoted as mahadeva,kalyan kari,trilok
adhipati{god of heaven earth and hell} how funny is that how can they changed their tune.


Origin of Kali:
The origin of kali in name and form has come from the Borok people, but again hijacked by Bengali. The kali had derived from the word swkal or witch. It is pronounced as Skali in Riang dialect. Skali is later on corrupted from Skali>kali to kali in Sanskrit. An evil spirit swkal when takes refuge in women is called as Swkal, and when takes to man he is known as Beduwa. Swkal is again considered as consort of Burasa mutai, an evil form of Subrai. That is why she is worshipped or offered in the
night, in the jungle only. For this reason we find the attire of kali with garland of human head, waist cloths of arms, with sword, drinking human blood, and protruded out tongue, which symbolizes imagination of our Swkal. Kali is wife of siva and another form of Parvati. Parvati has too many forms like durga,chandi, kali, kapali, vadrakali, chada, munda everything. It clearly prove that kali is kiranti goddess not Aryan.


Origin of Laksmi:
The goddess Laksmi is also did not find any place in the sacred text of Vedas. It had been mentioned as adjective to describe, not as goddess. It had derived from Kirata goddess of Mailuma in form who is goddess of rice and wealth in form. On the word form it had derived from Noksuma, here letter N is replaced with L that is common in Aryan language, like Nimbu=Lembu, Lon(take)=Nin. So Noksuma>Loksuma>Loksma> Loksmi, where as it retained the form of goddess of Mailuma. As such the rice was grain of Kirata race, who brought while migrating from china, where it was first discovered by Chinese people, so the concept of Goddess of rice given to Laksmi favours of Kirata race.

Origin of Saraswati:
This is the only goddess found in the Vedas and found to be origin of Aryan people. But again its form has been totally changed form its earlier form. It was mentioned in two meaning, one as river one as goddess. Sarswati in the Vedas was goddess of wealth, fruits and well being not as goddess of learning and intelligence. Sarswati to day is clothed with white color which had derived from Khuluma of Tripuri people who is goddess of cotton and learning as she teaches us to weave and design theclothes. Khuluma is considered white color as she for cotton.

Origin of Manasa:
Goddess manasa was not mentioned in Vedas like all the Hindu gods, she is mentioned only in the latter part of purana, some where in 15th century. She derived form the goddess noksuma of Tripuri people, but here she got the form and the meaning of Noksuma unlike laskmi who go only the name. she is goddess of snake like noksuma of Tripuris. The letter N of Noksuma inter changes with the last letter M and K is deleted. So naksuma>mansama>mansa. Mansa is goddess of snake in main land Hindu simmilarly the Noksuma is goddess of snake among the Tripuri people.

Origin of Lord Ganesh:

He is described as son of Shiva and Parvati, so he is none but mongoloid god. His name and form is also absent in the Vedas, that means he is not the Aryan god. It most likely represents the god Goria of Tripuri people. The other name of ganesh is Binayak, on the other hand baba Goria is worhipped as Binairok by the Ochai. This shows that the Goria and the Gonesh is same in the past. The knot tied at the end of Risa for holding paddy, cotton, flower etc was misinterpreted as trunk of elephant, so the ganesh head is considered as to be of elephant. These way, binairok became binayak and goria>gonesh. As Baba Goria is god of wealth, production, benevolent, and for the welfare the lord ganesh is also considered in the same meaning in main land Hinduism. So the Goria being transformed in to ganesh is the fact.

Origin of Kartik:

Kartik is younger brother of Ganesh, and son of shiv and durga, there by he is god of Kirata people by birth. His name is also not mentioned in the Vedas, so he is not god of Aryan people. According to Tripuri mythology, god Kalia is younder brother of Goria, he is also god of well-being. In the course of cultural synthesis during puranic period this kalia had been transformed in to Kartik is quite possible.


Not Believing the Facts Above:

If the above mentioned facts are not convincing and finding difficult to digest and not easily going up to our brain, then look at the following facts:

1) The Tripureshwari Temple of

Udaipur is built by King Dhanya Manikya in the year 1500 AD. But now it is mentioned in the Puran and described this temple as part of 51 pitha where Parvati’s right foot is considered to have fallen when her body was cut into 51 pieces by sudrashan charka. Then, is this true to the historical facts of Tripura?

2) The 14 gods of Kharchi are all Gods of Tripuri people and are named according to kokborok in the past. Rajmala compilers like Kailash Chandra had clearly mentioned that these were none but translated to Sanskrit, though retaining the same meaning.

3) The Kamakhya Temple of

Guwahati was built by Koch king (Borok race) in the end of 13th century, but this is again included in the list of 51 pitha where Parvati’s private part is considered to have fallen, where as truth is
other way round!

These bramhin people were so opportuniest and champion for to make false story which can be benefit for them like BUDHANIL KANTHA OF NEPAL They made unnecessary folk tale about it saying it was found by one local farmer when he dug the peddy plot and toe of bisnu had cut of during digging and blood start to came out side and blood start to flow everywhere.The poor peasant so horrified and asked for forgive since then all people start to worship and King shouldn’t go there to see budhanilkantha if he go will die because once when king been there lots of naga came to kill him.This is folk tale which bramhin people put illusion for uneducated people but if we see in scientific ground it was Made by JISNU GUPTA during lichivi period. Same thing GAUTAM BUDDHA who was fighting whole of his life against this Bramhan culture touchable and untoucheble they seize opportunity and put him 9th incarnation of god bishnu.This is completely ridicules and opportuniest behavior. It means Aryan can do anything if it benefit them. Doesn’t matter true or false.

So what is your Religion?

Now going through the historical facts mentioned above who are the original Hindu? Are we Kirata or those invaders Aryan? What are their gods they brought along with them and listed in the Vedas? What are the gods images found in the Indus valley? What are our traditional and mythological gods?

Who have converted to Hindu to whom? Did the Aryan convert us to Hindu? Or we Borok (Kirata) converted Aryans to Hindu?

Who had stopped worshipping their gods? Is it Borok or Aryan? Who had lost their culture? Is it Borok or Aryan?

They claim our civilzatiiion is their civilization and our religion is their religion.

There is no cause to feel inferior or to feel that Hindu are not we or gods of Hindu are not ours. There is no reason to search for BETTE R GOD and BETTER RELIGION. No logic to through your OWN RELIGION & GOD. All the India’s religion, culture and land belong to you since 6000 years. The earth, water, fire, air, and sky of India are also yours, as it had been of your ancestors for thousands of years ago.

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Last edited: 25-Apr-09 10:54 AM

 
Posted on 04-25-09 10:11 AM     Reply [Subscribe]
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Lord Siva does not discriminate anyone but blesses whoever worship him and Lord Gautam Buddha is
a human being of either pure Mongoloid or of mixed blood and is not an 9th incarnations of any hindu god from veda will be proven from my research work later.
Bu the above articles is an eye opener to those who are confused or have doubts about Hindu religions of Veda teachings.

regards,
jpg <archeology major>


 
Posted on 04-25-09 12:22 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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One of  my class is using this book "Tribal roots of Hinduism" By Shiv Kumar Tiwari.
This book support the above research work by Chandra Sunuwar as the book articulates the findings of the tribal practices and the links into vedic-Hinduism.

Here's some excerpt from this book:
The mother -- Goddes or Sakti was worshipped in different manifestation, ie Uma, Parvati, Durga, Kali, Candi or Chandika Devi, Kirata Devi... (Page 91-92)
http://books.google.com/books?id=n0gwfmPFTLgC&dq=Tribal+roots+of+Hinduism&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=keqG0GR_Zy&sig=M84BThdsGsV79KaEb3o_wSzKBtY&hl=en&ei=gUbzSZXgMJuEygWB9fG_DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#PPA154,M1
 

The assimilation to the Kirata god- Siva was not even complete in the age of Patanjali. Because in his commentary on Panini's ... (Page 152-154 )


Last edited: 25-Apr-09 12:43 PM

 
Posted on 04-25-09 5:30 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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An article given out by my professor to share with you:

Sunday, April 02, 2006
Glimpse of Cultural Affinity

-Dr. Biswanarayan Shastry.


At the remote past, not known when, people belonging to different races and ethnic groups settled in this region of Assam, and a composite culture was grown on their living in close proximity for millenia. Though the culture is termed as composite, in fact, a prominent one had absorbed many elements from others. The question as to who were the first settlers or who migrated first to this region, and who followed might be left aside i the present discussion. Scholars traces origin of Austric, Dravidian, Mongoloid, Aryan ( Alpine) and some other races among the people of Assam.

In the mythological period Assam was known as Pragjyotispur and the land is mentioned or referred to by this in the Mahabharata ans some of the earlier Puranas, and in the later Puranas and Tantras, The land of Assam is mentioned, by the name of Kamarupa. The Kalika a purana, a work of the ninth century A.D. says that when Naraka, the adopted son of Janaka came and conquered Pragjyotispur, the land came to be known as Kamarupa. However, both the names were currents up to 12th Century A.D. Naraka is an Asura and he belonged to the alpine race . He gave a new dimension to the existing practice or worshiping the female genital part on the traditional burying ground, and prevented the legendary vasistha from practicing vamahcrata cleft methods of worship. Naraka became the king of the land after he defeated and killed the ruling Kirata prince Ghataka. This piece of mythology clearly says that the original inhabitants of the land were the Kiratas, and indicates migration of the people of Alpine race. The subsequent event of Narakasura's vast friendship with Banasura indicates that both belonged to the same ethnic group.

The Cultural impact of the Kirata people on the new comer. Alpine people, and for that matter, Aryan people seems to be immense thought proper analysis has not yet been made.

The modern scholars, who are trying to get at the root of cultural behaviors of the people may be divided mainly into three categories according to their approaches. those who are in the first category mainly depend on the language and its word formations with derivatives meanings. innumerable uses of phrases and the sense they convey etc. The second category depends on folklore and folktales with common motives, which appear in different countries and the differences indicate the habit and belief of the people of the country.

The third category is anthropologists and they try to ascertain the origin of man on studying hair , forehead, skull etc. along with their death and birth rites etc. The distinguishing feature of a particular race or a group of people may be traced, among others, the speech, food habit, ceremony and religious festivals.

Influence of a culture on another culture is due to the mass migration of people from one place to other places. The history of India tells us that people belonging to different races entered India by the west gate at different times and left the stamp of their culture. Assam being situated in the eastern most corner of India only a small number of persons could reach here except the aryan people. On the other hand, the people belonging to mongoloid race and the people speaking Mon-Khemer speech entered Assam from Tibet, China, Myanmar and other places and the influence of their culture is visible. It is seen that traders from Manchuria in China with commercial items passed through Assam to the western market. Pieces of Bamboo sold in the markets of Kandahar, and the modern uzbekistan were from china and passed through Assam.

On Account of living the people of different ethnic groups side by side the apparent sanskrit names such as pragjyotispur, Kamarupa, Kamakhya etc. are likely to have their origin in the languages of Austro-Asiatic group or the Indo-Burma group of people.

The name of the rivers, such as Dhansirimay be traced in the language of Austric tribe while the names like Dihing, Dihang, Dikhou, etc are from Kirata or Bodo people's speech. The Kirata people now be identifies with Bodo and some other people have contributed many items to the civilization of Assam. The elephant was caught and domesticated long back and used in war and domestic purpose. The Kirata King Ghataka fought Naraka by riding his huge elephant. There are scholars who say that elephant was caught and used first by the Nishada people. Could Nishada of the Puranas be identified with the Kirata ? It is definitely a non Aryan Culture. The Aryan culture has more prominently in the use of horse and the fire. Taking fire in his mouth Videha Madhava crossed the river Karatoya and entered Pragjyoyispur. The kirata people were the worshipers of Siva and they were meat eaters and drinkers and they looked like pillars of gold with their shaven heads. they used elephants in war. It is to be noted that the code words used for elephant driving are same all over India, and East Asian Countries. Coincidently it may be mentioned that Bhagadatta, the son of Naraka and the king of Pragjyotispur joined the Kurushetra war with an elephant army and he himself fought the war riding a big elephant. the skill with which he fought with elephant against the Pandava army has been highly praised and he is described as the first in the world those who fight with elephant.

Prathamo gaj aya dhanam prithivyam iti me matiih


All these are mythological and historic or even pre-historic references. Let me now say a few words about the impact of tribal or similar culture on the present day culture of Assam. It is better to say as mutual exchange of thought and beliefs of the people living for generations together. For the birth of a child room in a house kept aside and the woman was considered untouchable for a period of ten days, and during this period a knife or a small weapon made of iron was kept under the mattress of the woman. this was perhaps continued since iron age. A bride and bridegroom while ready for the marriage celebration are under compulsion to have a knife in his and her hands for two-three days till the marriage ceremony was over. This is to ward of the evil eyes of the apadevata from the would be bride and bridegroom. It is not clear from whom, which community which borrowed .

The use of stones as purifying or protecting element is seen when the person from burying ground return home. They are first to put their foot on a piece of stone. If they return in the night they are to remain outside the house till the morning . In the night the apadevatas become stronger and name of them should not be uttered. This belief finds mentioned in the Ramayana , and hence it is clear if this belief has entered into the culture of Aryan people, it entered even before the composition of the Ramayana.

The habit of fish eating by the people of this region and of Bengal are from Mongoloid stock. Similarly eating bamboo shoots, cane shoots, rotten pumpkin are from Tibeto-burman stock. Fish finds it place in the sraddha ceremony and offered to ancestors. The process of assimilation was quickened by the tantras, where fish is one of the makaraas. It is interesting to note that the performance of the religious rite for the death of an elderly person in family the feast offered to the relations and others is called matsya sparsa, meaning touching the fish i.e. eating fish.

Every racial community has its original dress and material for dress. Karpasa, dress made of cotton is an old one, along with this the followings are the cloths used in medieval afe; the cloth made of hairs of animals, cloth from the bark of tress, and the cloth made by the yarn from cocoons. the last one is known as resham, which itself is divided into four categories , anmely mulberry, silk, endi, muga, and tasor. The rearing of worm for yarns is coming from China. The story of Mark Polo , how he managed to bring the eggs of worms to italy in his stick is known to all. Endi and Muga worm rearing is common to the tribal people which was latter on adopted by other people.

The dress of Assamese ladies includes riha which is not known by other parts of the country is from Khasi ladies. Siju, a thorny plant is regarded by Bodo peole as the physical symbol of the god shiva is also planted by other Assamese peole. The round shape house us from buddhist stupas, which is practiced by Khamtis and some other tribal people and adopted during period of Vaishnava movement for namghar construction.

The Bodo people believe that if a maid cleans the route of the house up to main road she will have long hair. This belief has migrated to the people belonging to other ethnic groups. Adoptation of folktales from one tribe by other tribes is many. One good example is the story of Tejumala, which could be found amongst the tribes of karbis, Kacharis etc.

During the vaishnava movement in Assam, particularly the followers of gopaldeva and Anirudhadeva made certain tribal people belonging to different tribes to embrace vaisnavism and the cult has adopted certain customs from their use. Using the red cap and mona ( bag) and the designation of the leader of the group of devotees as satola may be from tribes. These are only few instances of the vast range of composite culture.



 
Posted on 04-27-09 5:43 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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JEPG thanku for links. kitab nai leknu sakcha aba

ani Rewire mula, are yu talking apple or oranges?? history ko kura garrna muujjji  ani not luftahansa or hanuman . to the point

 
Posted on 04-28-09 9:47 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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Origins of Hinduism.      



Please refer to the book “Vedic Aryans and the Origins of
Civilization”, by Navaratna Rajaram and David Frawley, 2001, Voice of India
Publication, New Delhi. A short list of important time markers according to the
book:



8,000 BC: End
of last global glaciations (Wisconsian).



7,000 BC: First
indication of civilization – Mehgarha, India



4,000 BC: Early
Vedic age (Rig Veda)



3,750 BC:
Decline of Rig Vedic age, Ramayana



3,600 BC: Late
Vedic age, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas



3,100 BC:
Canonization of Veda by Vyas, Mahabharat, River Sharaswati losses Yamuna, Kali
yuga begins.



3,000 BC:
Brahmanas period, Harappa, Mohenjodaro



2,900 BC: First
civilization in Middle East/Europe – Rise of Sumerian and Akkadian empires in
Mesopotamia, and rise of old kingdoms in Egypt (early Pyramids).



2,200 BC: Major
drought and decline of Harappa



2,000 BC: River
Sharaswati loses Sutlej



1,900 BC: River
Sharaswati dries, Harappa ends, Zoraster (Persia)



1,500 BC: Iron,
Dwaraka



   600 BC: Pythagoras



   500 BC: Buddha



 



Here are a few brief notes on evolution of Hinduism. Let
us clear a few issues first. Hinduism is a collection of Dharmas, not religion.
Dharma is not religion. Dharma is about seeking truth (Satya) and spiritual
disciplines (Yoga). Dharma should not be confused with non-Dharmic issues like
caste or rituals. Caste is the evolution in Hindu society as per motivation and
job specializations in the ancient times. Varieties of rituals are mostly
cultural expressions. On the other hand, religions are about social control
through brain washing, not spirituality. Spirituality is a universal human
theme, not limited by history, geography or culture. There are many known and
unknown Dharmas in the world. The universal principle is termed ‘Sanatana.’
Hinduism is the subset of Sanatana or Dharmas evolved in Indian sub-continent,
e.g. Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, Tantrism, Charvakism
etc. Thus, Hinduism is a geographical definition. It can also be taken as a
democratic platform where different Dharmas act. A Dharma is not hostile to
another. They are like different branches of science (Sanatana) pursuing
different techniques and coming from different lineages. A Dharma may claim to
be easy or more rigorous or explains more, but will not condemn others.
Physicists do not condemn Mathematicians. Matter of fact, you cannot learn
Physics without Mathematics. Religions are always hostile to others. Because,
the social control comes from military like discipline and it cannot entertain
difference of opinions. A controlled society cannot have multiple ideologies or
leaders or cultures or views. Only a free society can have. Members of a
religion have to abide by the prescribed belief, ideology and behavior, and
essentially are not free. A soldier always sees enemy in another army. A Hindu
is not bound by any single discipline. The internal freedom is the first
requirement in spirituality. A Hindu learns from different schools and develops
own tradition. These individual or family traditions do evolve as new spiritual
tools are added and useless ones are dropped.



 



The end of last global glaciations (8,000 BC) is
important. Though there were earlier human civilizations, most were lost under
the glaciations. As the earth warmed, the tropical areas were first opened up
for the denser human habitation, which led to the advanced cultures and
philosophical developments. Most probably there were other civilizations also,
but as far as we know only ancient Vedic civilization survived. It still took a
few more millennia to evolve coherent spiritual ideas.



 



The Indian sub-continent was\is inhabited by all three
major races – Caucasian, Mongoloid and Negroid. There are still pockets of
Negroid people mostly in South India. Caucasian (not Aryan) people were\are all
over India. The Mongoloid (Kirati) people inhabited most of the Himalayan and
adjacent region and still do. The term ‘Arya’ is not race but means ‘cultured.’
Indians of any race call them self ‘Arya’ or ‘cultured/better’ as compared to
opponents who are labeled non-Arya or less cultured. It is like ‘Gentleman’ as
opposed to simple ‘man’ in English. Thus, it is misnomer to classify ‘Indian
Aryan’ specific to Caucasian race different from Mongoloid or Negroid races. On
the other hand, the theory that ‘Aryans came to India from Europe and displaced
original Dravidians’ is not true. Matter of fact, it is the other way. Northern
and Southern Indians, so called Aryans and Dravidians, is same people. Ravana
of Ramayan was a Brahmin. Some of these people migrated to Iran and Europe much
later. And many of the present day Khetriyas are actually Central Asians who
came to India later. Here the term ‘Caucasian’ is used as in physical
anthropology, not European/white specific. 



 



The practices of spirituality in Hinduism are the
amalgamation of teachings from all these groups. In general, Dwaita (Vishnu,
Narayan) philosophy comes mostly from Caucasian group and Adwaita (Shiva,
Mahadev) comes from Mongoloid (Kirati) group. In short, Dwaita teaches God
creates us through love, and we can approach God through love. Adwaita teaches
the universe is one, which includes our self. It can be realized by going
within or meditation. Adwaita uses abstract symbolism of ‘Lingam/Yoni’ to depict
the inner consciousness and the physical nature. However, there are other
systems also and Hinduism is the composite of all these views. These views are
not race specific. The medieval and modern proponents of Adwaita are Caucasians
like Shankaracharya and Vivekananda. On the other hand, Kirati people do not
limit worshipping only Shiva and practice only meditation. Kirati people
include many practices of Hinduism including tribal rituals.



 



The ancient Vedic civilization flourished around now
defunct Sharaswati river. The River used to be the mightiest flowing through
present day Rajasthan, Gujarat and pouring into Arabian Sea. The Sutlej and
Yamuna used to be its tributaries. It is interesting to note that there was no
physical river Sharaswati today as described in Veda and thus considered a
myth. However, present day technology of ‘Satellite Remote Sensing’ has shown
the ancient river and its multiple shifting basins. The ancient long lost city
of Dwaraka is also found in the sea by the Gujarat seashore.



 



The first indication of civilization begun around 7,000 BC
and Early Vedic period (Rig Veda) flourished around 4,000 BC. However, there
was tectonic (geological) shift and climate changes around 3,100 BC. River
Sharaswati lost Yamuna and started to dry up. It also marks the Mahabharata
age. After passing away of Krishna there was an interesting astronomical
alignment of all the planets. It is taken as the time marker between Dwapar and
Kali yuga. Also due to the precession cycle (26,000 years) of the Earth’s axis
the star alignments described in Mahabharat is considerably different from
alignments of today.



 



Because the Sharaswati river basin could not sustain
larger population, out ward migration began. River Ganga captured Yamuna and
became prominent. Civilizations around Ganga and Sindhu rivers (Harappa,
Mohenjodaro) became prominent around 3,000 BC. Varanasi/Banaras/Kasi is
considered the oldest continuously human occupied city today. Around 2,000 BC
Sharaswati lost Sutlej also. Sutlej became tributary to Sindhu. Around 1,900 BC
Sharaswati dried up and Harappa also declined. These ecological changes induced
out migration including into Iran and Europe, called Aryan migration.



 



Around 500 BC, Sidhartha Gautam ‘Buddha’ was born in
present day Nepal, who revitalized Dharma in Indian subcontinent, Asia and the
World. His core message is the existential reality can be realized through
empirical means or working within human faculty. It is important to note that
up till then standard spiritual practices depended on revelations or belief
systems. Thus, ‘you be the lamp on to yourself’ was a major break through.
Buddha was teaching an internal spiritual discipline independent of any belief
system, not forming an ethnic or political group. Thus, individuals of any
background can practice Buddhism.



 



A perfect harmony between the three principal sects of
Hinduism in Nepal namely Baudha (Buddha), Shaiva (Nilkantha) and Vaishnav
(Narayan) can be seen in the temple in Kathmandu, which we lovingly call 'Budha Nilkantha Narayan'.



 



            Satyam
ewa jayate.                                        Truth
always triumphs.



            Vashundhaiva
kutumbakam.                           World is
a family.



            Sarve api
sukhino santu.                                 Let all be happy.



            Yeto
Dharma stato jaya.                                Victory is where virtue is.



            Om mani
padme hum.                                    Goodness
comes out of goodness.



            Om
shantih, shantih, shantihi.                          Divine
peace, peace, and peace.



 



 


 
Posted on 04-28-09 10:00 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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jpeg le afno thread bachaune afain post garda garda laj bhayecha tara murkha pine77 bandima manche ullu hundainan harye kothe bdiwan......

 
Posted on 04-29-09 3:08 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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Dear Pine77 i fail to see your points. Just by looking at your Chronology of India’s History or the start of the civilization as stated in your given book, it is laughable and nonsense.
Mesopotamia is the land where the first civilization was born son! It has been proven with ample facts, statistics and number of artefact's that
Mesopotamia was the land where the civilization started. For everyone's sake Mesopotamia (Greek exonym "land between the rivers") is the area of the Tigris-Euphrates river system, along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to Iraq,as well as some parts of northeastern Syria, some parts of southeastern Turkey, and some parts of the Khūzestān Province of southwestern Iran(Persia). This areas are known as Mediterranean region
and Mesopotamia is Commonly known as the "cradle of civilization", Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer, Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires. In the Iron Age, it was ruled by the Neo-Assyrian Empire and Neo-Babylonian Empire, and later conquered by the Achaemenid Empire. It mostly remained under Persian rule until the 7th century Islamic conquest of the Sassanid Empire.

We all know that Aryan came from Persia. But not all of you knows that the Non-Aryans(Mongoliad) too came from this region. I have already written that too in
my earlier post. Please read The term “Kirat” and its origin through scholars"
in my earlier post.
Both Aryan and Mongoliad who are called Kiratas by Aryans came to ancient India from the Mediterranean region. The former came from Persia and the latter came from Assyria country. The latter arriving earlier.
The Aryan used to say Ashur for Kirati and other none Aryan people. Sur meas Aryan and ashur means none Aryan.
Here's a summary from my excerpt on earlier post on The term “Kirat” and its origin through scholars.

In fact, the term Kirat is a corrupt form of Kiriat, Kiryat or Kirjath which means a fort or town in Moabite language of the Mediterranean region. When their number increased, they built many forts and towns and called them Kiriat-hime, Kiryat-yarim, Kirjath-arba, Kiryat-baal,
Kiryat-hujro, Kiryat-sanna and Kiryat-sapher which indicate the meaning of the town or fort of the forest, or the town of the god Baal, or the town of books, or the town of palm trees. The residents of the above noted towns started calling themselves, “Kereti” which later on became
Keretite or the Kerite tribe. The ancestors of this tribe if identified, comes to Nahor; the younger brother of Abraham, a resident of Ur in Babylon.

He belonged to the Semitic family. The Kereti people spread towards the eastern and north-eastern countries. In 2400 BC, a branch of which came to Mesopotamiaor the Assyrian country, intermingled with the Ashur people and formed ONE nation with them. Later on they migrated to Northern India and the Himalayan region via Media and Nisa of Northern Persia with the title of the Kirat-Ashur tribe. But in Nisa they were called Khambos or Yavan and claimed their descent from the Greeks of the Ionian island.
In the Sanskrit book of Yogini Tantra, the Kirat nationality is included among the Yavan, Pallava, Koch and Pulinda races. The Greeks had also known the Kirats by the name of Kirhadai. The last remnant of the ancient Kiratite or Cherethite tribe was found recorded in the book of 2 Samuel, 15 - 18. They were a martial tribe during the reign of the Syrian King David in 1049 BC.
There is no doubt that the Kirat-Ashur people came to North India earlier than the Aryans yet they had known them very well in Persia. As the Assyrian country was mountainous and the Kirat-Ashur people were great hunters, they preferred to live in the mountainous countries of Kabul, Kashmir, Karakoram and all the Himalayan regions, though some of them migrated to the Indian plains and lived there for about twelve generations.

Sir John Hammerton in his book called “Early Races of Mankind", mentions that probably in the 4000 BC, there was a civilized race of mankind on the lower Euphrates of the Mediterranean region described as Mongolian or Summerian of the Cheldean. They had their own independent forts or towns. They used to fight for their border line and had erected an inscribed stone pillar of agreement in the middle of their boundaries. The defeated town never agreed to live under their enemies. They used to quit their native place for good and migrate to other countries. In like manner, in about 3000 BC, a big horde of people left their native place and came to the east and established the Chinese Empire.
 
The Kirat Vansavali mentions that after twelve generations, one branch of Kirat people migrated from the Indo-Gangetic plains to the Himalayan region and the other branch to Lanka or Ceylon to the south. It is for this reason that some scholars admire to find one of the aboriginal tribes of Ceylon with the name of, “Yakho” similar to the Yakkha-tribe of Eastern Kirat people of Nepal. The scholars have identified that the origin of the Kirat people of Nepal can be traced back in combination of three races.

The migration of the Kirat people to the Himalayan region will slowly form a new nation (known as Nepal today).
I will elaborate on this when i have time again. The combination of three races also will answer confusions regarding several ethnicities in Nepal
This will answer like to of suvachintak1 who wants to know or is interested in where did Nepali people come from? "How did we get divided in to Brahmin, Newars , etc…..?""


Happy Readings,
                           jpg







 
Posted on 04-29-09 6:11 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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Hindu God in China-Japan

The conceptual evidence that Hinduism was already in existence during pre-vedic period can be pointed to Hindu deities in China, Korea and Japan.
It is fact to everyone that after Chinese civilization, Korea came to exist and from Korea, Japan.
In the same way the influence of Hindu God moved from China to Korea and then Japan.
But the question is how did the Hinduism or Hindu God entered China?

To my best of knowledge so far, i fail to see any Brahmans priest entering China from India or Nepal in teaching about Hinduism to the Chinese before 18th century or earlier?
Yet to my knowledge that the some of the Hindu deities are found in oriental countries since earlier than 6th century needs to be NOTED.
So what's the link behind this.
Well here's some information regarding this:

China (Cinaratha) in the Epic of Mahabharata:

           It is well known that in the Mahabharata the Cinas appear with the Kiratas among the armies of king Bhagadatta of Pragjyotisa or Assam. In the Sabhaparvan this king is described as surrounded by the Kiratas and the Cinas. In the Bhismaparvan, the corps of Bhagadatta, consisting of the Kirtas and the Cinas of yellow color, appeared like a forest of Karnikaras.
The reference to their wealth of gold, silver, gems, sandal, aloewood, textiles and fabrics clearly demonstrates their association with the regions included in Suvarnadvipa. Thus, the connection of the Kiratas and Cinas is a sure indication of the fact that the Indians came to know of the Chinese through the eastern routes and considered them as an eastern people, having affinities to the Kiras, who were the Indo-Mongoloids, inhabiting the Tibeto-Burman regions and the Himalayan and East Indian territories in Assam and Sikkim.

In early Indian literature China is invariably shown to be connected with India by a land-route across the country of the Kiratas in the mountainous regions of the north. In the Vanaparvan of the Mahabharata the Pandava brothers are said to have crossed the country of the Cinas in course of their trek through the Himalayan territory north of Badri and reached the realm of the Kirata king Subahu. The Cinas are brought into intimate relationship with the Himalayan people (Haimavatas) in the Sabhaparvan also. The land of the Haimavatas is undoubtedly the Himavantappadesa of the Pali texts, which has been identified with Tibet or Nepal. In the Sasanavamsa this region is stated to be Cinarattha. Thus, it is clear that China was known to the Indians as lying across the Himalayas and was accordingly included in the Himalayan territories. In the Nagarjunikonda inion of Virapurusdatta, China (Cina) is said to be lying in the Himalayas beyond Cilata or Kirata. These references to the proximity of China to the Himalayan regions, inhabited by the Kiratas, show that there were regular routes through the Tibeto-Burman territories, along which the Indians could reach China.


Henry Rudolph Davies (1865 - ) says that Besides Buddhism, Shaivism was also popular in Yunan as is manifest from the prevalence of the cult of Mahakala there. This ancient Indian colony in the south of China was the cradle of Sino-Indian cultural relationship for a long time.

Therefore this clearly points out that Hindu god was already in existence even before the Rig-Veda came into existence. The Kiratas and Cinas intermingled to the point that they fought the Pandavas as ONE army. The point of one's culture influencing others could not be denied. Hence the  religion(Hindu) of Kiratas were taken in by Cinas(Chinese).


 
Posted on 04-29-09 8:28 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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Dear
JPEG



Namaste.



I am
sure you are loving and honorable like my father in law.



 



Perhaps
you have not read the book “
Vedic Aryans and the Origins of
Civilization, 2001” by Navaratna Rajaram and David Frawley. Since you have read
so many scholarly books, reading one more book may be a good idea. The book
debunks the theory of the Aryan invasion of the India. It gives a range of
perspectives and evidence on the issue. If I were a scholar like you I would
pay attention first to the paradigm shifting theories.



 



If you
have any questions perhaps you may like to contact the writers. I could not
find contact information of Dr. Rajaram. However, Prof. Frawley is in Santa Fe,
NM (Em
ail: [email protected],
Telephone: 505-983-9385)



 



Meanwhile you may be interested
in a few of the web sites:



 



1. Aryan Invasion Theory Links:



http://www.hindunet.org/hindu_history/ancient/aryan/aryan_link.html



 



2.
Saraswati – The ancient river lost in the desert.
A. V. Sankaran



http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/oct25/articles20.htm



 



3. Scientists
prove existence of mythical Saraswati river.


The Times of India.
 Date: May 2, 2001


http://www.hvk.org/articles/0501/6.html



 



I think
you missed my point. I did not minimize the contribution of the Kirati to the
evolution of Hinduism. Matter of fact, that is what I wrote. These kinds of
studies come always with healthy debate and differing views. It takes some time
to shift wheat from chaff and derive a standard theory. Perhaps currently it is
going through such mode.



 



Sincerely, Pine77
 
Posted on 05-01-09 9:55 AM     Reply [Subscribe]
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Suggestion: Very interesting topic. But hard to read  whole line specially the paste part (annoying). Can you make it Easy to read?


 
Posted on 05-01-09 12:35 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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Namaskar folks:
Kiratas was the aboriginal of the ancient India and how with the creation of Vedic literaure, Kirata
as the aboroginal was term as the low born men, and try to bring these people into fold of Brahamism(Vedic) Hinduism is shown below:

According to Srimad-Bhagavatam and Bhagavad-gita, anyone, including so-called low born men,
who may take shelter unto the Lotus Feet of Lord Krishna or His devotees, is sanctified by initiation process.

kirata-hunandhra-pulinda-pulkasa
abhira-sumbha yavanah khasadayah
ye 'nye ca papa yad-apasrayasrayah
sudhyanti tasmai prabhavisnave namah

upon translation is;

Kirata, Huna, Andhra, Pulinda, Pulkasa, Abhira, Sumbha, Yavana, members of the Khasa races
and even others addicted to sinful acts can be purified by taking shelter of the devotees of the
Lord, due to His being the supreme power. I beg to offer my respectful obeisances unto Him.
(Srimad-Bhagavatam 2.4.18)

In the purport of this verse Srila Prabhupada describes the Pulindas as the Greeks, from whom Western civilization has descended, and the Hunas as the Europeans, who later inherited the Greek legacy. The Khasas are the Chinese, or Far-Eastern peoples. The Kiratas are described in the
purport as aboriginal peoples from the Kirata province of "old Bharata-varsa." However, it should
be noted that Bharata-varsa is the ancient India and comprised of Nepal also. In another place Srila Prabhupada describes Kiratas as synonymous with Nisadas, residents of present-day Africa:


Lord Siva seen as tribal(Kirat) God:

The kirata people were the worshippers of Siva and they were meat eaters and drinkers and they looked like pillars of gold with their shaven heads.
Siva abode is Mt Kailash which was also the regions of the Kiratas.

The Origin of Shiva:

The word Shiva has root in the Kirata or Borok race, not in the Vedas because Shiva as god
is not mentioned in it. Shiva is hybrid of two Kirata words, simani means Gyan or knowledge and Kaiba, means five, i.e. Si+Ba=Siba>Siva>Sibarai>Sibrai . That means a god who has knowledge
of five elements of life, that is earth, fire, water, air, and sky, that is cosmic rays which forms the life. That is one who has created life in this world or creator of life in the world. Other meaning can be
one who made us perceive or feel five senses in our body, that is who is the soul of the boy. It is this Sibrai converted to Shivai in Sanskrit. From this five shiva is said to have five face and named as “Panchanan.”

Tagera Nyingmaphuma is personified as Lord Siva (Kirat ure) and is also mentioned as Kiratas/tribal God in Ancient Works of Vedic Literature:
The scrips in Mahabaharata depicts this:

We should recall that as early as the Mahabharata we find the legend of Siva Mahadeva,
the Great God, taking the guise of a Kirata, with Uma with him as a Kirata woman, to test Arjuna when he was practising religious penance in the Himalayas: a legend which may have
its germs in the following vers of the Sata-rudriya section of the White Yajurveda (XVI, 7):

Asau yo vasarpati nila-grivo vilohitah
utainam gopa adrsrann vdaharyah: sa drsto mrdayati nah

May he who glides away, whose neck is azure, and whose hue is red, he whom the herdsmen,
whom the girls who carry water have beheld, may he when seen be kind to us."
(Trans. by Ralph T. Griffith, Benares, 1899.)
And this is quite a high exaltation of the status of the non-Aryan hill people, the Kiratas, when
the Supreme God with his consort was made to take up the guise of a Kirata hunter and his
wife Sabari, as Kirati woman.


In the episode of Siva meeting Arjuna as Kirata, accompanied by Uma also in the
guise of a Sabari or a Kirati woman, in the Himalaya regions, when Arjuna went there
to propitiate Siva by his austerities with a view to obtain the boon of the Pasupata weapons
from the Great God himself, as narrated in the Kirata-parvan section of the Vana-parvan of
the Mahabharata.

na tvam asmin vane ghore bibhesi kanaka-prabha
upon translation;
"O thou that art shining like gold (addressing Siva in the form of Kirata), dost thou not
fear in this terrible forest" (IV, 35, 18).

So in other word Siva who is considered as Kiratas and tribals God, and in Vedic Hinduism Siva
is seen as the supreme God and so if these people were the worshipers of Siva, weren't the Srimad-Bhagavatam and Bhagavad-gita contradicting itself by saying Kiratas and other aboriginal
as the low born men.

I have some excerpt from "Khaptad Region in Mythology" by Shiva Kaj Shrestha

The Naga People and Abrogenious Kiratas:

Quoting Bhagabat Purana, Vallava Doval states that Lord Shiva was borned in Naga Tribe.
Atkinson (lbid, p. 362) based on facts and local traditions concludes that Khasa, Kiratas, Nagas
and Hunas were tribes of "Mountains"(Hima1ayas).
It is very possible that the mythological Naga people were Shaka-Magars who were termed as
Kiratis in Nepal and Raj-Kiratis in Kumaun in India.

In Vayu Purana, Kiratas are mentioned along with "Shabaras" and "Pulandas". In Far-Western
Nepal till 30-40 years ago one could hear of "Sabari" salt traded by Saukas or Vuyasis (mongolic people living in Vyasa Himal area). Famous Indian author Suniti Kumar Chatteriji in his book Kirata-Jana-Kriti quotes an ancient prayer (in the 1st page)
which is as follows:-
"Om! Salutation to Siva, the all good, the Kirata!
Om! Salutation to Uma, the mother, the Sabari

speaks for itself.

It is therefore many scholars also have seen that Siva is the God of Kirata(tribal) and later it
was Aryan who took Siva as their own God and Hindunized/Aryanized it so basically
Siva is seen more as Veda Hindu God than tribal God.

As one scholar said "To begin with, the kipat system and the mundhum are traditionally
uncontested metaphors of Kirata culture. Similarly the worshiping of
Tagera Nyingmaphuma or the supreme deity was a pan-Kirata symbol. But with the
abolition of kipat system and the simultaneous influence of Hinduism, these symbols
have lost their strength considerably. Since Tagera Nyingmaphuma, is often personified
as Shiva, who is notonly considered tribal God but also one of the Hindu pantheon, he
cannot be claimed by the Kiratas as their exclusive God" ---Politics of Culture:
A Study of Three Kirata Communities in the Eastern Himalayas), 1999 by Tanka Bahadur Subba


According to G.P Singh, "Saivism, Saktism, Tanticism and Visnavism --- the four important
sects or forms of Hinduism also became popular amongst the Kiratas. It is very difficult to
ascertain the exact period, which marked the emergence of Saiva, Sakti and Trantric cults
as popular cults in the kiratas society.
However, on the basis of information contained in the literary texts and other collateral evidence
it can be easily affirmed that a large section of the Kirata population in ancient times had
abiding faith in the worship of Siva, Mother-Goddess or Sakti and Devi, par excellence
and in the Tantric practices. Some of them came under the impact of Bhagavata cult too. Siva, generally conceived as a non-Aryan deity, secured a prominent place in Kirata pantheon.
It can be roughly asserted that Siva worship must have begum among the Kiratas
in the mountainous regions of the Himalayas in pre-Vedic times before the advent
of Aryans.
That is why, Siva(Kiratesvara=the God of the Kiratas) has been considered as pre-Aryan God. On the basis of an episode as described in the Mahabharata, as well as, the Kiratarjuniyam of Bharavi the Kirata can be identified with Siva." pg. 238,
Kiratas in Ancient India by G.P Singh, 1990.


Therefore this is one example of pre-Vedic God taken into the Veda religion which is known as Hinduism today.

Namaskar,
                   jpg



Last edited: 01-May-09 03:28 PM

 
Posted on 05-02-09 9:18 AM     Reply [Subscribe]
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Disintegration of the [Kirat]Original Hindu Religious Practice

So far not many research has been taken by the Nepali scholar regarding Kiratas due to lack of materials or simply did not bothered. Though Nepal history do mentioned Kiratas as one of the
ruling dynasty not much has been recorded during Kirats rule till yet, but as of today many foreign scholars have studied this group of people who have reference in the Mahabharata text and Veda ures.Without understanding or acknowledging this people contributions in ancient India and Nepal public will not be able to see the connections of religions, practices and even identities that
are all linked to the Kirata.

A collection of manus from the 18th and 19th centuries, till now unpublished and unstudied by historians, have made possible regarding history of early Nepl and
Kirat people
. These historical sources are among those collected by
Brian Houghton Hodgson
– a British diplomat and self-trained Orientalist appointed to the
Kathmandu court during the second quarter of the 19th century – and his principal research aide,
the Newar scholar Khardar Jitmohan.

To start one need to understand the term Kirata.
The Kiratas (Sanskrit: किरात) mentioned in early Hindu texts are the tribals or Adivasi of the land
with this sanskrit phrase “kiram atati bhramati yah” meaning one wandering over the forests.

The name Kirata is for the first time found in the Yajurveda (Sukla Yajurveda, Vajasaneya, XXX,
16; also Krsna Yajurveda, Taittiriya Brahmana, III, 4,12,1).

In connexion with the Purusa-medha or ‘Man-Offering’ sacrifice, where a
list of all kinds of human beings and animals symbolically or
figuratively offered to the gods as sacrifice is given, we find the

following passage:–
guhabhyah Kiratam; sanubhyo Jambhakam; paravatebhyah Kimpurusam
which upon translation will read
‘A Kirata, for the caves; a Jambhaka (long-toothed man?) for the slopes; a Kimpurusa (an ugly
man, a wild man, an ape?) for the mountains.’

Then in the Atharvaveda (X,4,14) we have a reference to a Kirata girl
(Kairatika) who digs a herbal remedy on the ridges of the mountains:–
Kairatika kumarika saka khanati bhesajam:
hiranyayibhir abhribhir girinam upa sanusu.
‘The young maid of Kirata race, a little damsel, digs the drug:
Digs it with shovels wrought of gold on the high ridges of the hills.’
(Translation by R.T.Griffith.)

“Macdonell and Keith have the following note in their Vedic Index on Kirata:
‘Kirata is a name applied to a people living in the caves of the mountains, as appears clearly
fromthe dedication of the Kirata to the caves in Vajasaneyi Samhita (also Taittiriya Brahmana),
and from the reference to a Kirata girl, who digs a remedy on the ridges of the mountains.

The Manava Dharma-sastra regards the Kiratis as degraded Ksatriyas (ref. X, 44).’
When a non-Aryan or foreign people is describes in an old Indian text as being of degraded
Kshatriya origin, there is always an implication that they were, to some extend at least, advanced
in civilisation or military organisation”. — Suniti Kumar Chatterji (KIRATA-JANA-KRTI)

The Kiratas were described as 'gold-like', i.e, yellow in color (and not dark or black like the Dasas
and Dasyus and the Nisadas and other pre-Aryan peoples of the plains).
Here's the quote from the the book taken from Kirata-parvan section of Varna-parvan of the Mahabharata.
Kairatam vesam asthaya kancana-druma-sannibham
"Taking up a Kirata resemblance, like unto a tree of gold" (IV,35,2);

dadarsatha tato jisnuh purusam kancana-prabham
"Then the Victorious One(Arjuna) saw a Man, shining like gold" (IV, 35,17)

na tvam asmin vana ghore bibhesi kanaka-prabha
“O thou that art shining like gold (addressing Siva in the form of
Kirata), dost thou not fear in this terrible forest” (IV, 35, 18)

The Ramayana also mentions the golden color of the Kiratas; thus
Kiratasca tiksna-cudasca hemabhah priya-darsanah,
antar-jala-cara ghora nara-vyaghra iti srutah
(Kiskindhya-Kanda, 40, 27, 28, qouted by N.N Vasu)

upon translation is
The Kiratas, with hair done in pointed top-knots,
pleasant to look upon, shining like gold, able to move under water, terrible, veritable tiger-men,
so are they famed.

In Yoga Vasistha 1.15.5 Rama speaks of "kirAteneva vAgurA", "a trap [laid] by Kiratas",
so about BCE Xth Century, they were thought of as jungle trappers, the ones who dug pits
to capture roving deer. The same text also speaks of King Suraghu, the head of the Kiratas
who is a friend of the Persian King, Parigha.

*It is to be NOTED that Kirat originated from Assyria, same region as Persia.


Kiratas with referenced to scholars:

The term Kirat is a corrupt form of Kiriat, Kiryat or Kirjath which means a fort or town in
Moabite language of the Mediterranean region. When their number increased, they built many
forts and towns and called them Kiriat-hime, Kiryat-yarim, Kirjath-arba, Kiryat-baal,
Kiryat-hujro, Kiryat-sanna and Kiryat-sapher which indicate the meaning of the town or fort of
the forest, or the town of the god Baal, or the town of books, or the town of palm trees.
The residents of the above noted towns started calling themselves, “Kereti” which later on
became Keretite or the Kerite tribe. The ancestors of this tribe if identified, comes to Nahor;
the younger brother of Abraham, a resident of Ur in Babylon.

He belonged to the Semitic family. The Kereti people spread towards the eastern and
north-eastern countries. In 2400 BC, a branch of which came to Mesopotamiaor
the Assyrian country, intermingled with the Ashur people and formed ONE nation
with them. Later on they migrated to Northern India and the Himalayan region via Media
and Nisa of Northern Persia with the title of the Kirat-Ashur tribe. But in Nisa they were called Khambos or Yavan and claimed their descent from the Greeks of the Ionian island.
In the Sanskrit book of Yogini Tantra, the Kirat nationality is included among the Yavan,
Pallava, Koch and Pulinda races.
The Greeks
had also known the Kirats by the name of Kirhadai.
The last remnant of the ancient Kiratite or Cherethite tribe was found
recorded in the book of 2 Samuel, 15 - 18. They were a martial tribe
during the reign of the Syrian King David in 1049 BC.

There is no doubt that the Kirat-Ashur people came to North India earlier than the Aryans
yet they had known them very well in Persia. As the Assyrian country was mountainous and the Kirat-Ashur people were great hunters, they preferred to live in the mountainous countries of
Kabul, Kashmir, Karakoram and all the Himalayan regions, though some of them migrated to the Indian plains and lived there for about twelve generations.

The Aryan used to say Ashur for Kirati and other none Aryan people. Sur meas Aryan
and ashur means none Aryan.

Please read The term “Kirat” and its origin through scholars" in my earlier post.

Hence with the arrival of Aryan into the Indo-Gangetic plains later, the Kiratas were forced to
moved to other parts of the region. The Kirat Vansavali mentions that after twelve generations,
one branch of Kirat people migrated from the Indo-Gangetic plains to the Himalayan
region and the other branch to Lanka or Ceylon to the south. It is for this reason that some
scholars admire to find one of the aboriginal tribes of Ceylon with the name of, “Yakho” similar to the Yakkha-tribe of Eastern Kirat people of Nepal. The scholars have identified that
the origin of the Kirat people of Nepal can be traced back in combination of three races hence creating several ethnic groups in Nepal
.

This migration of the Kirat people to the Himalayan region will slowly form a new nation (known as Nepal today).

I will elaborate on this when i have time again. The combination of three races also will answer confusions regarding several ethnicities in Nepal

This will answer like to of suvachintak1 who wants to know or is interested in where did Nepali
people come from? "How did we get divided in to Brahmin, Newars , etc…..?""

In the mean time, i want folks to read this so one will have slight about the history of Kirata people
and the reason behind the disintegration of the Kirat[Original Hindu] religious practice in modern Nepal.


Disintegration of Kirat regions, and religious practices

Historians have pointed two essence that led to disintegration of Kirat regions, religions and people in Nepal and the Himalayas regions. The first is the Kirat conflict with Tibetan Migrant, followed by the conflict with Gorkha conquest led by Prithvi Narayan Shah.

Kirat Conflict with Tibetan Migrant:
Historians today are convinced that a widespread cultural conflict took place in the eastern Himalayan region between the indigenous inhabitants – called the Kirant – and the Tibetan migrant population, reaching a climax during the 18th and 19th centuries. Another wave of political and cultural conflict, between Gorkhali and Kirant ideals, surfaced in the Kirant region of present-day Nepal during the last quarter of the 18th century will be presented later. A collection of manus from the 18th and 19th centuries, collected by Brian Houghton Hodgson and his principal research aide, the Newar scholar Khardar Jitmohan has shed some ideas on the Kirat people history in Nepal.

For over two millennia, a large portion of the eastern Himalaya has been identified as the home of the Kirant people, of which the majority are known today as Rai, Limbu, Sunuwar, Yakha and Lepcha.
Dhimal, Hayu, Koch, Thami, Tharu, Chepang and Surel ethnic groups also consider themselves to be of Kirati descent. Still though other ethnic groups in Nepal have a association or is link directly or indirectly to Kiratas. For example, Newars are believed to descendant of Kirat people.

"The similarity in place names of Tistung-Palung-Chitlang to the south of Chandragiri hills, now inhabited by the Hale and Gwa caste groups of Newars, and Chepang area, as well as the linguistic relations between the Chepangs, Newars and Kirats indicate they could have common ancestry and could be descendents of the Nagas. The Newar name for Patan, Yala, is believed to originate from the Kirat king Yellung or Yalambara, the alleged founder of the dynasty and the city.Chyasal-tol is believed to commemorate the 800 Kiratas slain in battle with the Lichchavis (Tiwari, 2001).

In ancient times, the entire Himalayan region was known as the kimpurusha desha, a phrase derived from a Sanskrit term used to identify people of Kirant origin. These people were also known as nep, to which the name nepala is believed to have an etymological link. The earliest references to the
Kirant as principal inhabitants of the Himalayan region are found in the texts of Atharvashirsha and Mahabharata, believed to date to before the 9th century BC. For over a millennium, the Kirant had also inhabited the Kathmandu Valley, where they installed their own ruling dynasty.This kirant population in the valley, along with original Austro-asiatic and negretoid settlers form the base for later Newar population. When the Kirat dynasty ended, the Kirat people settled
mostly in the Koshi region of present-day eastern Nepal and Sikkim.

From around the 8th century, areas on the northern frontier of the Kirant region began to fall under the domination of migrant people of Tibetan origin. This flux of migration brought about the domination by
Tibetan religious and cultural practices over ancient Kirant traditions. This influence first imposed shamanistic Bon practices, which in turn were later replaced by the oldest form of Tibetan
Buddhism. The early influx of Bon culture to the peripheral Himalayan regions occurred only after the advent of the Nyingma, the oldest Buddhist order in Lhasa and Central Tibet, which led followers of the older religion to flee to the Kirant areas for survival. The Tibetan cultural influx ultimately laid the foundation for a Tibetan politico-religious order in the Kirant regions, and this led to the
emergence of two major Tibetan Buddhist dynasties: in Sikkim and Bhutan. The early political order of the Kingdom of Bhutan had been established under the political and spiritual leadership of the lama
Zhabs-drung Ngawang Namgyal. Consequently, Bhutan used to be known in the Himalayan region as the ‘kingdom of [Buddhist] spiritual rule’ (in old Nepali, dharmaako desh). The Tibetan rulers of Sikkim were also known as Chogyal, or spiritual rulers.

Both of these kingdoms adopted policies of suppression of indigenous practices, replacing them with those of Tibetan Buddhism. Bhutan’s religious rulers established a tradition of appointing religious
missions to other Himalayan kingdoms and areas, through which they were able to establish extensive influence in the region. Bhutan’s ambitious missions were sent as far west as Ladakh. Even before the founding of modern Nepal by Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha in 1769, Bhutan’s rulers
were able to establish spiritual centres in several parts of what was to become the former's territories, including Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Gorkha and Vijayapur in the midhills, and Mustang, north of the central Himalayan range.

Sikkim had long been home to Lepcha Kirant people and culture. Under the guidance of Tibetan Buddhist lamas, however, their self-rule and cultural independence was suddenly taken away. Sikkim kings were even able to subdue the entire far-eastern part of the Kirant region –
historically known as Limbuwan – for at least a short period of time. Here, the new rulers adopted policies of religious and cultural subjugation, encouraging Sikkim lamas to travel to places of strategic
importance in order to establish monastic centres. But the indigenous population did not easily surrender themselves to this cultural invasion. Limbu and Lepcha manus collected by Brian Houghton Hodgson in Darjeeling indicate significant resistance by the Kirant against Tibetan Buddhist rule and cultural domination. While much of this struggle consisted of attempts to strengthen cultural awareness, there were also violent engagements between Kirant communities and their new rulers.

Gorkhali hegemonies:

The next phase of military and cultural threat faced by the Kirat people was at the hands of the Gorkhali expansionists of Nepal. The nature and intensity of this hegemony was to prove significantly
different from that of the earlier Tibetan one, however. From the very beginning, the Gorkha court's intention in the region was not the extension of its Hindu-based culture. Rather, Gorkha's was a clear
military campaign of territorial expansion. After the completion of the conquest of the Kathmandu Valley in 1769, the Gorkhali army marched east towards the Kirat territory. The Sen
rulers of eastern Nepal, known as Hindupati, had established a weak rule in the Kirat region by adopting a policy of mutual understanding with the local Kirat leaders. The Gorkhali military campaign, in contrast, brought with it a forceful and brutal occupation. During the conquest, the invading authorities adopted a harsh divide-and-rule policy: they first asked the Kiratis to surrender, assuring them that they would retain local rule and their traditional order. After many took up this offer, however, the conquerors instead demanded that Gorkhali rule be obeyed and Gorkhali traditions be followed.

Manus in Hodgson's collection make mention of Kirat men, male children and pregnant women having been murdered in great numbers. The Gorkhalis ultimately divided the Kiratis into two groups, the sampriti and the niti: the former were those who had surrendered to Gorkhali power and cultural traditions, while the latter maintained their own traditions. The Gorkhali authorities naturally favoured the sampritis, killing the nitis or forcing them to flee their lands. As a result, much of the niti population migrated towards Sikkim and Bhutan. But Gorkhali wartime policy changed, particularly after the conquest of the territories of Kumaun and Garhwal far in the west. By the end of the
18th century, the authorities in Kathmandu were in need of more state revenue, and implemented a policy to bring people into Nepali territory in order to make barren land arable. The Kirat who were ousted from their lands during the Gorkhali military conquest were also asked to return home, albeit under the condition that Gorkhali rule and traditions were strictly followed. Relatives and friends of those who had fled were recruited to call them back, and people moved again between the state-given identities of niti and sampriti.

Hence after the annexation of Kirat Region, much of the significant of Kirats religious practice and values suffered at the hands of hindu brahmins who arrived at the Kirat region later after the annexation.Prior to that Kiratis did not engage the services of brahmins to perform
religious ceremonies. Hence the Kirat religious practices slowly shifted from being theirs to modern day Hinduism.

This is the summary of the history of Kirat people from 18th century to the annextion of Kirat Region by the Gorkha dynasty.

On my next post i will start the early period of Nepal, the formation of Nepal and how the term "Nepal" came to exist when the Kiratas migrated from Indo-Gangetic plains to the Himalays regions.


Happy weekends folks,
                                      jpg, archelogy major
Last edited: 02-May-09 09:46 AM

 
Posted on 05-08-09 10:48 AM     Reply [Subscribe]
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One interesting fact to highlight the people.

 Isle of Bali linked with Pre-Brahminic Nepal


Authentic accounts of Hindu cultural presence in the South-East Asian region was first reported by Fa Hsien, the intrepid Chinese Buddhist Pilgrim. In 441 A.D., he had made a landfall in one of the islands when driven off course by a storm during his perilous return voyage from Sri Lanka to his home port in China. Fa Hsien has left behind for posterity a first hand account of the presence of brahminism in the island coexisting with Buddhism. The learned pilgrim who had spent decades in India studying Buddhist sanskrit manus and all his compatriots who visited India during the same period have used the expression brahminism or Dewa-Worshipping instead of the popular modern term Hinduism.

Ever since that discovery, the inhabitants of the Isle of Bali have been identified as Hindus. By so doing, we are inadvertently comitting a grave injustice not to the Hindus alone but to the History of Man.

Here in the Isle of Bali, we can bear witness to the peaceful syncretism of Hinduism (Dewa-Worshipping) and Buddhism in their archaic form. Manjusri, the founder deity of Kirati Nepal is worshipped by the Balinese as the embodiment of the three supreme gods of Hindu pantheon, i.e., Brahma, Bisnu and Mahadeo. The Balinese also worship the Pancha Dhyani Buddha, Five Buddhas of Eternal Meditaion identified as Hindu gods, i.e., Vairochana as Sadasiwa, Amitabha as Mahadewa, Ratnasambhawa as Brahma, Amoghasiddha as Bisnu and Aksobhya as Rudra. Not only do the Balinese acknowledge Pancha Dhyani Buddha, they are aware that four of them face the cardinal directions while the fifth one is placed at the centre.

The significance of this discovery, that is to say, Manjusri, founder deity of Nepal and the Pancha Dhyani Buddha from Nepal who are totally unknown in Hindu India but are woshipped by the Balinese, leads an observer to believe that Kirati Nepal and the Isle of Bali share a common provenance.

The fact that Pali canons are unknown in the Isle of Bali establishes a simple fact that Bali Island had remained beyond the reach of Ashokan Missionaries. However, absence of brahminic caste system within Balinese community further narrows down our research to one single conclusion: that the Balinese are indeed that branch of the Kirati Mongolians who had migrated out of Kathmandu Valley eastward during the proto-historic Völkerwanderung(Barbarian Invasions).

Essentials of Kirati History
by Colonel G.L. Rai-Zimmdar
 
Posted on 05-08-09 2:14 PM     Reply [Subscribe]
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Hindu religion came from people who eat mushrooms (the infected kind).
 
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Behold the revelation

Usually when crime is committed, a trace of evidence is left behind.
The following praise to Lord Shiva and Parvati from one of the veda s is a revelation to behold.

Om Namah Sivaya Kirataya
Om Namah Umayai Sabaryai
upon translation is;
"Om! Salutation to Siva, the all good, the Kirata!
"Om! Salutation to Uma, the mother, the Sabari!

Arya-Dramida-Nasida-Kiratanam krtir hi ya;
Sveta-tamrasita-svarna caher-varnya-mayi hita;

rsibhir brahmanair dista jina-buddhadi-desita,
vibhinna-ruchi-hrdya ca ricitra-patha-hetutah,

sarva-devatmika nitya jira-brahmaikya-bhavani,
sarvam-saha dharitriva sarva-vaha sanatami.

dharma-mitir Bharatiya nitya-satyasya siddhaye
sarva-lokasya sada syadd hitaya ca sukhaya ca,
vibudhanam prasadaya prey ase sreyase' pi ca.

sva-karma-niratah sarve caranto dharma-desanam
himsa-lobha-vihinasca bhavantu sukhinah sada.


And this is quite a high exaltation of the status for the non-Aryan hill people, when the ures from the vedic literature solely reveal the true identity of Siva and Uma.

Note to be taken. The word Siva and Sabari is of non-aryan origin.
As already proven that the word Siva is hybrid of two Kirata words, simani means Gyan
or knowledge and Kaiba, means five, i.e.
Si+Ba=Siba>Siva>Sibarai>Sibrai. That means a god who has knowledge of five elements of life,
that is earth, fire, water, air, and sky, that is cosmic rays which forms the life. Many historical
records and mythological facts reveals that Sibrai or Siva was originally a Tripuri vis-a-vis Kirata people’s original God, which later had been adopted by non-Kirata people of India, and its
mythology re-written.

The Tripuri (Tipra or Tipperah) people are the original inhabitants of the Kingdom of Tripura in North-East India and Bangladesh. The Tripuri people through the Royal family of the Debbarmas
ruled the Kingdom of Tripura for more than 2000 years till the kingdom joined the Indian
Union in 1949.
The Tripuri people are considered part of the Tibeto-Burmese ethnic group. Originally they migrated from near the upper courses of the Yangtze kiang and the Hwang Ho rivers in Western China.
The common reference to these people as "Kiratas" and "Cinas" in the early Sanskrit texts of India unmistakably indicates that they came down to the Assam valley long before the dawn of Christian era.

Manifestation as Uma:
One of the names of Parvati is Uma. This name is also not mentioned in any of the Vedas. The origin and the birth of word Uma is also full of conflicting and contradictory in the Purana. But it is very clear
according to Tripuri faith and mythology. The Tripureshwari Goddess is called as simply Ama or sakani ama that mother of south. This word Ama had been corrupted to Ama>Uma and
symbolized with Parvati.

The other name of Parvati is known as Kiratini, Chandika but is more well known as Durga
which has all its roots as non-aryan origin.

Hence still today Rai people of Kirat family still worship and thanks Kiratini, Chandika as Durga
in a form of Chandi dance.

According to the book "Devi Mahatmya"("Glory of the Goddess") by Coburn, Thomas B,
it is striking that the word Chandika has virtually no earlier history in Sanskrit. "There are no instances of its occurrence in the Vedic literature we have surveyed. The epics are similarly barren: neither
the Ramayana nor the Mahabharata give evidence of the epithet, although in one of the hymns
inserted in the latter Canda and Candi are applied to the deity they praised."

And Sabari is a female name from Sabara tribe. Sabara tribe is associated with food-gathering and hunting activities. Tribal and indigenous people of India by Rabindra Nath Pati, Jagannatha Dash

In addition, at the page 235 Tribal roots of Hinduism by Shiv Kumar Tiwari, one can find the list of non-aryan tribes. The sanskrit refers Pulinda, Nishada, Sabara, Kiratas tribes repeatedly.
At next page, it gives account about Sabara tribes. Here's a short except from the page.

"The earliest reference to the Sabara tribe is found in the Aitareya Brahmana wherein an account of its origin is given. It says that the eldest sons of Visvamitra were cursed to become the progency of the
most abject races such as Andhras, the Pundras, the Sabaras, the Pulindas and the Mutibas. These Dasyu tribes are said to have lived on the borders of the Aryan territory. The Mahabharat further elaborates this explanation. The Ramayana also confirms the tribe to be of non-Aryan origin."


The Origin of Hindu Religion is therefore is religion of native tribes and hence this thread is concluded
but i will continue to update any relevant findings regarding to Hinduism if i have hands to it.

On my continuation of this thread, we will FOCUS on Early Period of Nepal, and how the term "Nepal" came to exist when the Kiratas migrated from Indo-Gangetic plains to the Himalays regions.


Happy readings,
                          jpg(archelogy major)

Last edited: 10-May-09 04:42 PM

 
Posted on 05-17-09 10:25 AM     Reply [Subscribe]
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Both Aryan and Mongoliad who are called Kiratas by Aryans came to ancient India from the Mediterranean region.
The former came from Persia and the latter came from Assyria country. The latter arriving earlier.
The Aryan used to say Ashur for Kirati and other none Aryan people. Sur meas Aryan and ashur means none Aryan.
There is no doubt that the Kirat-Ashur people came to North India earlier than the Aryans yet they had known them very well in Persia. As the Assyrian country was mountainous and the Kirat-Ashur people were great hunters, they preferred to live in the mountainous countries of Kabul, Kashmir, Karakoram and all the Himalayan regions, though some of them migrated to the Indian plains and lived there for about twelve generations. ~Sir John Hammerton in his book called “Early Races of Mankind"
which can be found in "The History of the Kirat People" published in 2003.

The Kirat Vansavali mentions that after twelve generations, one branch of Kirat people migrated from the Indo-Gangetic plains to the Himalayan region and the other branch to Lanka or Ceylon to the south. It is for this reason that some scholars admire to find one of the aboriginal tribes of Ceylon with the name of, “Yakho” similar to the Yakkha-tribe of Eastern Kirat people of Nepal. The scholars have identified that the origin of the Kirat people of Nepal can be traced back in combination of three races.
"The History of the Kirat People" (2003)


The migration of the Kirat people to the Himalayan region will slowly form a new nation (known as Nepal today).
I will elaborate on this when i have time again. The combination of three races also will answer confusions regarding several ethnicities in Nepal
This will answer like to of suvachintak1 who wants to know or is interested in where did Nepali people come from? "How did we get divided in to Brahmin, Newars , etc…..?"" thereby solving the issue of Unity, not ethnic, division.

But i need more time. But in the mean time, here's some brief summary of early period of Nepal.
By also looking at the early period of Nepal, one should get the idea about the Origin of the Hindu Religion. It be noted that they wasn't any Vedic Hinduism influence on the aboriginal people at that early period. These group of people religion and practices were thus "Virgin" ~ Untouched and Unspoilt!

PRE-HISTORIC NEPAL From the Scholars

As per the legends, the aboriginal people were serpent worshippers and were called Nagas. The legends portray the Nagas as a matriarchal society who worshipped simple unhewn stones as tribal female deities dedicated to Kali, Kumari, Devi, Malika, Maiju and Ajima. Traces of such customs still remain with the Newars, the Kiratas and Rajbanshis (Tiwari, 2001).

The similarity in place names of Tistung-Palung-Chitlang to the south of Chandragiri hills, now inhabited by the Hale and Gwa caste groups of Newars, and Chepang area, as well as the linguistic relations between the Chepangs, Newars and Kirats indicate they could have common ancestry and could be descendents of the Nagas. The Newar name for Patan, Yala, is believed to originate from the Kirat king Yellung or Yalambara, the alleged founder of the dynasty and the city. Chyasal-tol is believed to commemorate the 800 Kiratas slain in battle with the Lichchavis (Tiwari, 2001).

Mahabharat mentions Kiratas as aligned to Kauravas. Shiva also appears as a Kirata to give Arjuna the weapon of Pashupat. The Puranas ( edited in 400 AD?) mention Kiratas as people of the Madhyadesh, located in the Himalayas next to Kamrupa ( Slusser, 1982).

Kira (edge) ta (roam)- so Kiratas thought to refer to aboriginal people roaming at the edge of Aryan settlements.
Some vamsavalis mention the Kiratas took the Bagmati route from the south to enter the valley (Tiwari, 2001).
Slusser suggests earlier drifters from the Tibetan plateau to be the ancestors of Kiratas who in turn were the ancestors of the Newars (Slusser, 1982).
Whereas the Gopalas and Mahispalas were thought to have come from India and followed Vedic Hinduism with Vaisnavite inclination, the Kiratas were thought to be the followers of Shiva. Kirateswore Sivalinga and proto-Lichchvi Kali of Aryaghat are indicative of Sivaite following among Kiratas.(Tiwari, 2001).

According to N. M. Thulung, Kirata folklore suggests the Kiratas originated from “Mong” in China. They split into the Chyan, Tyan and Hyan genets. The Chyan moved south to the Indus Valley and from there into Nepal after the Aryan invasion. The Aryans entered the Indus Valley in waves between 2000-1200 BC and expanded into the Gangetic plains. The Aryans referred to the original inhabitants as “Dasa”, “Dasyu” and later “Saka” and they were excluded from the Aryan society because they had different religious beliefs. The Manusmriti identifies the Kiratas as one of the eleven tribes who inhabited the Indus-Saraswoti region. Tiwari believes some of these tribes were forced to move away from their homeland and into the Kumaon region. While the Khas set up their kingdom in the Kumaon hills, the Kiratas moved on to settle in the Kathmandu Valley (Tiwari, 2002). While no remains of temples were found in the Indus Valley, archaeologists have concluded that worship of the primal form of Siva, Rudra, was popular.

Note to taken: "they were excluded from the Aryan society because they had different religious beliefs"
The Manusmriti lists the Yavanas with the Kambojas, Sakas, Pahlavas, Paradas, Kiratas etc. and regards them as degraded Kshatriyas (members of the warrior cast).
In the Bhagavata Purana the term is used in the context of meat eaters, outcasts.
The Vishnu Purana also indicates that the "chatur-varna" or four class social system was absent in the lands of Kiratas in the East and the Yavanas(Greek) and Kambojas(Iranian), etc. in the West

The easternmost town of the Sakas dug up by archaeologists so far is Alamgirpur which lies a little to the north of Delhi. Thus, the physical distance as well as the time gap between the Indus civilization and the Kathmandu Valley is not as great as it seems. Further east and closer to Nepal lay the Sakya kingdom of Kapilavastu. They are believed to belong to the Khas clan of the Sakas and they also extensively used brick construction. Considering the fact that the Sakyas and the Kirats were contemporaneous, it is not difficult to conceive that the Kirats may have traveled to Kathmandu Valley after being displaced from their ancestral homeland by the Aryans.

The Kirata capital appears to have shifted frequently. Chronicles mention the capital shifted from Kiratsur at Thankot to Andipringga (Hadigaon) and to Patan. According to Tiwari, earlier, Bishandevi of Balkhu near Naikap seems to have represented the power of the state so when the Kiratas set up their capital at Andipringga, they brought her and set her up in their capital somewhere near the current location of Satyanarayan temple. This act invested the Kiratas with the power to rule. Later, during Lichchavi rule, Narayan became the god which invested the power to rule, so the Lichchavis erected the Narayan temple at the site of the goddess of Andipringga and relocated the temple of the goddess to Tunaldevi at Chandol (Tiwari, 2002).

Popular belief is that Patuko mound in central Patan is of Kirata origin. Some historians have concluded that Kirata king Patuko shifted his palace from Gokarna to Sankhamul. Patuko is thought to have been the second last Kirat king so Patuko is probably a historical figure of Kiratas. Kirata culture used bricks for built structures since early times. Tiwari believes Kiratas used bricks and timber to build palaces and transient buildings for commoners and contends Sankhamul as the palace site, probably where the Patuko mound stands (Tiwari, 2001). Chyasal tol is one of the oldest quarters. Chyasal and Guita are exclusively inhabited by Jyapus, suggesting their lineage closest to ancient Nepal. The Kiratas early relations with Patan is reinforced by the fact that two sites are considered venerable by the present day Kiratas: Siddhilaxmi temple near Tyagal tol and Tikhel at the southwest corner of Patan (Slusser, 1982).

Although legend has it that the Lichchavis slew 800 Kiratas at Chyasal tol, some believe Lichchavi takeover of Kiratas was not violent as the Lichchavis make no mention of diaspora, fire or sword or boasts of victory (Slusser, 1982). Lichchavi inions suggest Kirata settlements in the form of small towns were situated on the upper reaches of the hill slopes. They had non-Sanskrit names which continued even during Lichchavi periods. Some of these were Ahidumkottagrama (around Gokarna), Lembatidrangga (Lele), Mathanggrama (west of Thamel), Lohpring and Muhpring (east and northeast of Pasupati), Kadunggrama, Ferangkotta, Kichpringgrama, Pasinkhya, Thenchograma and Jolpringgrama (all around Thankot), Konko (south of Bhaktapur), Thanthuridrangga (near Budanilkantha) etc. Excavations in Hadigaon have revealed pre-Lichchavi brick walls (167 BC -–1 AD) and a water tap tray with the name Andigrama suggesting the site belonged to the Kirata settlement of Andipringga. In current Kirata terminology and probably in the ancient times as well, “cho” and “gung” indicate places located on higher grounds. The Lichchavi inions have many such names e.g. Haragung, Dhandangung, Chhogung, Lumbancho, Pahancho, Dhancho, Gungrihara, Gungshikhara etc.

Spring fed ponds and hill top ponds, natural or man-made, were important to Kiratas as they were settled on higher grounds. The Lichchavis and later on the Mallas continued to use these as their source of water supply for their towns.

The small settlements of Yambi (current Indrachowk), Jama (current Jamal), Lanjagvala (current Lagan) and their capital Andipringga (current Hadigaon) further to the east were aligned along the main trade route from India to Tibet, the Kampo-Yambi Marga (Indrachowk -Ason-Jamal-Naxal-Hadigaon-Dhumbarahi-across Dhobikhola-Mahankal-Kapan)(Tiwari, 2001). Lichchavis later added the larger town of Daxinakoligram to the south of Yambi.


In his book “The Brick and the Bull” Tiwari hypothesizes that when the “Sakas” moved away from their homeland and into the Kathmandu Valley, they brought along with them the knowledge of the 18 building trade groups, among these the art of brick building, water tanks, drainage system etc. They also brought their religion (Tiwari, 2002). The discovery of 2nd century BC brick construction by the Italian excavation team near the Satyanarayan temple gives conclusive proof that the Kiratas had advanced knowledge of brick construction. Terracota figurines of humped bulls and matrika sculptures suggest Saiva and mother goddess worship was prevalent among the local population.

That other dynasties preceded Lichchavis is proven by the fact that Sanskrit inions of Lichchavi period used mostly non-Sanskrit terms for administrative and personal names (Rogamacau, Sindrira, Kedumbata) and more than 80% place names including that of hamlets, towns, rivers etc which have survived till today, eg. Pharping, Balkhu, Balambu, Mhepi, Khopring, Tukucha etc. If Lichchavi rule began from the 1st century and older names survived for more than 500 years when the Lichchavi inions were made, it indicates that there were well established towns and villages during the Kirata period and there was continued influence of the Kirata language on non-Sanskrit language (Tiwari, 2001).
The Kiratas worshipped Ajima (Yumi) or grandmother and Ajju or Bhairav or Hathvan (Theba) or grandfather and these traditions are existent in eastern Nepal. Some writers consider the imageless piths of Kanga Ajima, Luti Ajima and Maiti Ajima as remains of Kirata goddesses. Yumi was worshipped as mother goddess; Rais and Limbus also worship Yumis. Popular Newari belief links Indrachowk Akash Bhairav and Pachali Bhairav to Kirata king Yalambar Hang and his son Pabbi respectively. Places worshipped as Bhairav were memorials of kings: Akash Bhairav of Indrachowk commemorates King Yalambar while Pachali Bhairav is for the Kirata king of Pharping. One interesting point is the Hadigaon inion of Amshuvarman listing state recognized religious sites. None of the above sites were cited or were lumped under “tadnyadevakulam” indicating they did not find favor with the then rulers (Tiwari, 2001).

Many early Kirata settlements probably emerged around mother goddesses and Bhairav temples. There probably were also Kirat defenses on hilltops such as Phulchoki, Nagarjun, Champa Devi, Nagarkot gap, Nuwakot etc. The vamsavalis tell of Kirata palaces at Phulchoki, Godavari, Gokarna and later Pulchowk but there are no remains to corroborate the statements. The Mandeva palace at Gokarna is thought to be the Kirata palace but since it is a cave, its likelihood being the remains of a Kirata palace is remote. The Kirata towns on hilltops were referred to as pringgas eg. Pharping, Khopring (Bhaktapur) and dula suffix meant settlements on slopes: Kupondol (Newari term dol for dula).



 



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