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 GUN VS GURKHA KHUKURI www.nepalitonepligift.com
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Gurkha Khukri: An alternative to Handguns against Criminal Attackers
Bp Badal from www.nepalitonepaligift.com

Abstract
American Gun Policy encourages owning a private gun for security purpose. Gun kills; it is also a license to kill. It creates negative psychology in the society. Instead of Gun culture and Gun Policy, Gurkha Kukri Culture is hundreds time far better has been justified from the study. America should replace Gun Culture with Gurkha Khukuri Culture. Information gathered for this study in three stages: a) analysis of primary law; b) Cross-checking with the principal secondary sources and d) verification with law enforcement and state agencies. It is a comparative study of Gun Culture of America and Gurkha Khukuri Culture of Nepal. The definitions of key terminologies are included in review section. Complete library method and historical study have been used to analyze the issues.

Key Words: Culture, Gurkha Khukri, US Gun

Background
In American society, considering the intensity of the debate about gun violence prevention, public knowledge of current gun laws is extremely poor (Open Society Institute, 2000). The richest or the best country in the world has the poor gun laws. The conclusion of the survey shows that 42 states fall below minimum standard for public safety since they lack basic gun laws such as licensing and registrations. State governments regulate the sale of firearms in order to protect the society of their citizens. However, guns are easily transported across boarders and an assault weapon bought out of state is no less dangerous than one obtain locally (Open Society Institute, 2000). It seems guns are the problem of USA. The relationship between gun laws and violence is a question arousing great interest and controversy in the United States. The issue is complicated by many factors including: demographics, levels of urbanization, poverty, unemployment, organized crime, alcohol and drug use, extent of gun ownership, predominance of handguns vs. long guns (rifles and shotguns) in the community, and proximity to other states with weaker or stronger laws (Open Society Institute, 2000). It shows in every social and economic sector have been affected by the gun policy.
In 1994, 44 million Americans owned 192 million firearms, 65 million of which were handguns. Although there were enough guns to have provided every U.S. adult with one, only 25 percent of adults actually owned firearms; 74 percent of gun owners possessed two or more. Sixty-eight percent of handgun owners also possessed at least one rifle or shotgun (Cook & Ludwig, 1997). It means 44 million Americans are living in fear of criminal attacks.
Gun ownership was highest among middle-aged, college educated people of rural small town America. Whites were substantially more likely to own guns than blacks, and blacks more likely than Hispanics (Cook & Ludwig, 1997). So whites are in more risk psychologically than black than Hispanic. Americans possess more than 200 million firearms for private purpose. Each year about 640,000 violent crimes, including 16,000 murders are committed with guns, mostly handguns. Some people believe gun-control laws, which restrict gun ownership, can reduce the bloodshed. Others believe that guns help protect Americans and gun laws should be less strict (www.crf-usa.org, 2012). The household ownership of firearms has declined in recent decades. The survey shows that the 31.0% of households reported having a firearm in 2014, essentially tying with 2010 for the lowest level of gun ownership in the last 40-some years. This is a decline of about 17 percentage points from the peak ownership years in 1977-1980.
Similarly, it indicates that in 2010 and 2014 about 32% of adults lived households having firearms. This was a decline almost 19 percentage points from an average of 51.2% in 1976-1982 (Smith & Son, 2015). The 31.0% of households reported having a firearm in 2014. The decline is only from the activities of animal right groups against hunting and environment degradation. Furthermore household gun ownership was greater for among respondents in household with higher incomes (Smith & Son, 2015). It means richer people in psychological risk of criminal attack. Guns and domestic violence are a lethal combination - injuring and killing women every day in the United States. A report of futures without violence says, “A gun is the weapon most commonly used in domestic homicides. In fact, more than three times as many women are murdered by guns used by their husbands or intimate acquaintances than are killed by strangers’ guns, knives or other weapons combined”. Guns are tools to kill not to prevent. So Americans seem in psychological trauma.
International evidence and comparisons have long been offered as proof of the mantra that more guns mean more deaths and that fewer guns, therefore, mean fewer deaths (Kates & Mause, 2008). Denying the principles or values of society there is a compound assertion that (a) guns are uniquely available in the United States compared with other modern developed nations, which is why (b) the United States has by far the highest murder rate. Though these assertions have been endlessly repeated, statement (b) is, in fact, false and statement (a) is substantially so (Kates & Mause, 2008). There are not substantial proofs to be false the statement however it is biased against Russia. The US is widely described has having more firearms in civilian hands than any other nation in the world. The empirical basis of this claim is derived primarily from aggregate firearm sales and importation / exportation data that are collected by the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) (Miller, 2015).

Statement of the problem
31% of Americans have firearms. It means 31% of American people in psychological trauma of being a victim of criminal attacker. Furthermore criminal attacker normally do not own the arms however they use it by another way. In every society according to Chanakkya around 5 % people live in extreme pole of best and worst (Das & Singh, 2012). If so 36 % of richest persons are in risk. The 36 % of richer Americans feel unsecure in their own land in America. Psychological insecurity directly or indirectly plays an important role to decrease the productivity. Psychologically insecure people cannot invest or reinvest and create new jobs that are very necessary and important in current America. World’s longtime number one economy, a prominent developed country and world influencing country America is declining in its productivity and new job creations.
America is insecure internally in such a way and externally with different terrorists and communists. America is always in war sometime with Vietnam, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Afghanistan and sometime with other terrorists’ group. It is due to the gun policy that America is seriously suffering from external as well as internal threats. So America must find out the solution against gun and power (Kates & Mause, 2008). In the United States, annual deaths resulting from firearms total in 2013 was 33,636 and, annual homicides by any means total was 16,121 in number (Miller, 2015). The study focus only on internal affairs related with firearms and its consequences. So what would be the alternative of gun or war in America? What would be the psychological alternative remedies of reducing productivity of American Economy?
Thus alternatives of guns or firearms will be a psychological tool of economic development of future America. The social crimes created by lethal arms are seriously affecting the economic life of human kind in US.

Review
The Alternative: Gurkha Khukri
Gurkhas have served the British Crown in the East India Company, Indian Army and the British Army since 1815 (Richard, 2011). The latter arrangement, initiated when the Brigade of Gurkhas was formed in British Service in 1948, is based on the terms of the Tripartite Agreement between Nepal, Britain and India which allows Gurkhas to serve in formed units under unique terms of service different to other Foreign and Commonwealth countries (Richard, 2011). The Brigade of Gurkhas is an integral, adaptable and flexible part of the modern British Army. The Brigade provides a unique military capability based not just on its cultural identity and operational effectiveness, but the fact that it adopts a ‘band of brothers’ approach to its capability. It has six capbadges (Royal Gurkha Rifles, Queen’s Gurkha Engineers, Queen’s Gurkha Signals, Queen’s Own Gurkha Logistic Regiment, Gurkha Staff and Personnel Support and the Gurkha Band) who are all trained as infantry first. Gurkha units are also fully manned (Richard, 2011). Khukri is the most important weapon of the Gurkha Army.
The Kukri or Khukuri is a Nepalese knife with an inwardly curved blade, similar to an axe, used as both a tool and as a weapon. Traditionally it was, and in many cases still is, the basic utility knife of the Nepalese people (Richard, 2011). It is a weapon of the Nepalese Army, the Royal Gurkha Rifles of the British Army, the Assam Rifles, the Gurkha regiments of the Indian Army, and of all Gurkha regiments throughout the world, so much so that some English-speakers refer to the weapon as a "Gurkha blade" or "Gurkha knife". The Khukuri often appears in Nepalese heraldry and is used in many traditional rituals such as wedding ceremonies (Wikipedia, 2016).
The kukri is effective as a chopping and slashing weapon. Because the blade bends towards the opponent, the user need not angle the wrist while executing a chopping motion unlike a straight-edged sword, the center of mass combined with the angle of the blade allow the kukri to slice as it chops (Richard, 2011). The edge slides across the target's surface while the center of mass maintains momentum as the blade moves through the target's cross-section. This gives the kukri a penetrative force disproportional to its length (Richard, 2011). The design enables the user to inflict deep wounds and to penetrate bone In India the kukri sometimes incorporates a Mughal-style hilt in the fashion of the Talwar but the plainer traditional form is preferred in Nepal (Wikipedia, 2016).

While most famed from use in the military, the kukri is the most commonly used multipurpose tool in the fields and homes in Nepal. Its use has varied from building, clearing, chopping firewood, digging, slaughtering animals for food, cutting meat and vegetables, skinning animals, and opening cans. Its use as a general farm and household tool disproves the often stated "taboo" that the weapon cannot be sheathed "until it has drawn blood" (Wikipedia, 2016). The kukri is versatile. It can function as a smaller knife by using the narrower part of the blade, closest to the handle. The heavier and wider end of the blade, towards the tip, functions as an axe or a small shovel (Wikipedia, 2016). Culturally the terms "Nepali" and "Gorkhali" are used interchangeably and in this sense all the citizens of Nepal are not included.
The term "Nepali" can mean a person following Nepali culture, speaking Nepali language and residing any part of the world. Ethnically, Gurkhas who are presently serving in the British armed forces are primarily Indo-Tibeto-Mongolians. They are originally from Nepal. Gurkhas serving in the Indian Armed Forces are of groups, Indo-Tibeto-Mongolian and ethnic Rajput. Gurkhas of Tibeto-Mongolian origin mostly belong to the Magar , Rai, Limbu, Gurung, Tamang, and Kiranti origin. Gurkhas of Aryan origin mostly belong to the Chhetri and some Brahmin origin. Gurkhas are mainly Hindu (Wikipedia, 2016). The Gurkhas made Hinduism the state religion of Nepal. A very few are adherents of Tibetan Buddhism and Shamanism; under Hindu influence (Wikipedia, 2016). All Gurkhas, regardless of ethnic origin, speak Nepali, also known as Khas Kura or Khas Bhasa, an Indo-Aryan language. They are also famous for their large knife called the kukri (Khukuri), which is featured in an X shaped configuration on their emblem. In the mid-1980s some Nepali speaking groups in West Bengal began to organize under the Gorkhaland National Liberation Front, calling for their own Gurkha state, Gorkhaland (Wikipedia, 2016). Kukri Nritya (Khukuri Dance) from North Bengal performed by the girls of the community when they ceremoniously hand over their traditional weapon, the Kukri, to their brothers, before they set off for the war etc.


The US Gun
Gun is a weapon incorporating a metal tube from which bullets, shells, or other missiles are propelled by explosive force, typically making a characteristic loud, sharp noise as google defines. A gun is a normally tubular weapon or other device designed to discharge projectiles or other material. The projectile may be solid, liquid, gas or energy and may be free, as with bullets and artillery shells, or captive as with Taser probes and whaling harpoons. The first device identified as a gun, a bamboo tube that used gunpowder to fire a spear, appeared in China around AD 1000. The Chinese had previously invented gunpowder in the 9th century.
Gun ownership in the United States is constitutionally protected by the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. Firearms are widely used in the United States of America for self-defense, hunting, and recreational uses, such as target shooting. Gun politics is polarized between advocates of gun rights, typically conservative, and those who support stricter gun control, usually liberal.
The gun culture of the United States can be considered unique among developed countries, in terms of the large number of firearms owned by civilians, generally permissive regulations, and relatively high levels of gun violence. Gun culture in the United States encompasses the behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs about firearms and their usage by civilians. Gun ownership in the United States is constitutionally protected by the United States Bill of Rights. Firearms are widely used in the United States of America for self-defense, hunting, and recreational uses, such as target shooting. Gun politics is polarized between advocates of gun rights, typically conservative, and those who support stricter gun control, usually liberal. American attitudes on gun ownership date back to the American Revolutionary War, and find an origin also in the hunting/sporting ethos, and the militia/frontier ethos that draw from the country's early history. Gun culture and its effects have been at the center of major debates in the US's public sphere for decades. In his 1970 article "America as a Gun Culture,” historian Richard Hofstadter used the phrase "gun culture" to describe America's long-held affection for guns, embracing and celebrating the association of guns and America's heritage. He also noted that the US "is the only industrial nation in which the possession of rifles, shotguns, and handguns is lawfully prevalent among large numbers of its population". In 1995, political scientist Robert Spitzer said that the modern American gun culture is founded on three factors: the proliferation of firearms since the earliest days of the nation, the connection between personal ownership of weapons and the country's revolutionary and frontier history, and the cultural mythology regarding the gun in the frontier and in modern life.

Table 1
Differences between Gun and Khukri
SN
Bases of Differences
Gun
Khukuri
1
Production
It needs high technical process in a factory
It is simply a crafts man can make it in home
2
Cost
It will be costlier
It is nominal
3
Identity
Killer
Peace keeper
4
Culture
Murder
Gun Culture
Dignity and protection
Gurkha - Nepali Culture
5
Symbol
Death
Peace and protection
6
Usages
It needs technical knowledge
It’s a weapon to kill
Difficult to unfold in emergency
It’s easy
It’s a tool for creation
Easy to pick up and use in emergency
7
Legal provisions
Registration
Renewal
Licensing
Trainings
Taxes
Just buy once as a knife simple
8
Storage
It needs to be kept safely in different cases with different locks
We can keep it in kitchen or in bathroom
9
Output
Death
Control
10
psychology
Destructions
Peace and dignified life style
11
Dimension
Attack
Self defense
12
Outcome
Hate
Love
13
Limit
Limited bullets
Unlimited strikes
14
consequences
Negative
Back warding
Positive
Forwarding
15



16



(Source: Collected from different sources of references 2016)


Analysis
Gurkha Khukuri replaces handgun (Pistol, Revolver) for private purpose against criminal attacker: The Gurkha Khukuri is a simple blade type of knife with artistic handle and cover. Its shape and sizes are also artistic. It can be easily hanged on hip belt. It is easy to use. It is simply a knife and useful in self-defense. If someone’s purpose is only self-defense and does not want to commit murder of a criminal attacker the Khukuri will be the best tool. Most of Americans are in confusion by the advertisement of gun sellers so not only Khukuri sellers or producers but all American community must be clear about their social threats or insecurity. It is time to reevaluate the thinking pattern and psychology. Only in jungle age war or murder can settle the problem but in this modern age human can win any kind of battle from peace and love. America can learn from Buddha, Mahatma Gandhi and Dalai Lama.
America is the land of American so Americans have to revise the gun policy. Gun is a weapon to kill. Killing is not the solution of crime. To control crime or criminal attacker we have to take them in control for psychological counseling that is only possible by the Gurkha Khukuri. In present condition criminals can come any time and situation with highly automated weapons but a victim cannot even pick up his/her weapon from the case in store. So keeping a gun for security purpose is wrong idea or a foolish idea. All Americans are not foolish so a day in future very soon Gorkha Khukuri will replace the gun and gun policy. From the perspective of usage, cost, manufacturing, storing and psychology of peace the Gurkha Khukuri is far better than the Gun for humanity. It’s time to change the war, hates, battles, and struggles into peace. Peace and love is the solution of every problem. America has to lead the peace and love of modern civilization.

A pair of Gurkha Khukuri is the symbol of Peace, love and Solidarity:
The intrinsic value of federal American Constitution is the peace and security of the people of the country. The gun policy is a step escape of federal government to protect the citizen. America has given a gun to the citizens to stay safety. Is this a satisfactory role of a government to protect the citizens? Definitely not, so the government has to replace the gun policy by adopting Khukuri culture. The government has to organize national debate of Gurkha Khukuri. Gurkha Khukuri is a symbol of peace, love and solidarity. A cross Khukuri in a hat symbolizes peace keeping mission.
In northern India and Nepal, people have the culture of Lahure and Khukuri Dance. In Lahure Dance and young boys of the village demonstrate a parade with Khukuri in a song called – “Jaaga Lamka, Chamka hai nawajawan ho” it is a motivational performances of young boys who wants to join army or police. It is a function of progress and activism for development of community. It symbolizes the peace, progress and solidarity on the land. Khukuri dance is about love, respect and motivation from sisters to brothers and lovers to lovers to go to battle field with Khukuri. “Lahureko Relimai fashion nai ramro Rato rumaal Relimai Khukuri Bhireko” is a famous song of the land. On the ceremony sisters gifts the Khukuri for the successful completion of his mission in battle field. To be a perfect Lahure (Good Army) one must be trained on the use and values of Gorkha Khukuri Culture. Gorkha Khukuri culture is the culture of Nepal, Culture of Buddha – Love, Peace, progress, Dignity and prosperity. From this function sisters or lovers motivate and encourage the boys for the mission Lahur by the gift of Khukuri. A famous king who has united Nepal from Kumau Gadawal to Sikkim, Asam or Bhutan, Prithvi Narayan Saha had won every battle by the Gurkha Khukuri Culture. The Gurkha Khukuri Culture is far better than Gun Culture of USA. It is the culture of peace and solidarity that America has to follow for peaceful progressive future of USA.

A Gurkha Khukri is a means of Creation:
Khukuri culture is predominantly a Nepali culture. It is shaped as in a Nepali song “Hatne hoina dati ladne nepaliko baani hunchha, kahilei najhukne sira ubheko swavimaani nepali hunchha”. A Nepali who had vowed for a mission never get back either they give life or come back with victory. So they are very famous in British, India and Nepal Army. Plus they are involved in UN peace keeping mission, Singapore police etc. including Chhetri, Magar, Gurung, Rai, Limbu and Tamang castes constitute the majority of Nepali community and are involved in Army and Police around the globe. They are very famous for the peacekeeping mission of United Nations. They all always have a kukri on their hip belt and an icon of joint Khukuri on their hat.
By the strong determined heart for peace and security of mission every Nepali is committed by Khukuri culture. It is a commitment of Nepalese culture. We can say it is a culture of commitment. It is commitment for the peace either death or peace is confirmed. So it creates peace. Peace creates everything. Khukuri creates peace and peace is the environment for everyone. It maintains control and creates for good environment for dialogue, debate and discussion. Khukuri does not kill but it creates the environment conducive to the culprits also. It provides the chances of improvements. It is a creator like a god.
It is not only weapon but also a tool cut woods and bamboos to build fence or shelter, to cut vegetables or meat or fruits to generate utility of other things. It creates shelters, food and cloths. Khukuri makes life easier in Jungle. Same as in households it makes life easier in kitchen garden maintenance and so forth. So it is a creator whereas gun does not have any significant value except the shoot to kill. Gun kills Khukuri saves. Every Nawaratri (Dashain) Hindus worships handmade weapons like khukuri and knives as the tool of Goddess Nawadurga. People buy new or mend old Khukuries in Dashain which will be useful to chop meat, vegetables or fruits. It is the symbol of divine power culturally so people do not misuse it.

A Gurkha Khukri is an operator:
Whether in the agriculture field, kitchen garden or in the battle field or in security mission, the operator must carry a Khukuri. Almost Nepali carries Khukuri in their every types of operation. Peace mission operation in political insurgency or terrorism control over jungle the security personal must have a Khukuri. Maoists of Nepal fought by Khukuri whereas Nepalese army controlled them also by the Khukuri. To manage and control crowed for security purpose it is very useful. So Khukuri culture is an operator of peace and progress.

A Gurkha Khukuri is a protector:
Khukuri protects human being from animals and crime criminal attackers. Khukuri protects human beings in every battle. No doubt Khukuri kills the enemy. Khukuri can hit unlimited strikes. Bullets of gun can be finished but the strikes of Khukuri never end. Gun needs to be open, picked up from the case in store but we can have khukuri in our every bed or room. In Nepal Khukuri is kept in under every pillow in a bed and in every kitchen. Every Nepali must keep a book of Gita and a Khukuri in under his pillow in bed. Whenever needed Nepali can easily picked it up from bed or kitchen or bathroom to frighten the criminal attacker. In many battles of 2nd world war after finishing the bullets Nepali Army had picked up the Khukuri for the self-defense and own. So Nepalese are called Bahadur and Brave Gorkhali because Gurkha culture and Khukuri. As Khukuri is the protector of Nepalese will be the protector of every American.

Conclusion
America urgently needs to revise the Gun Policy and has to take control over entire guns with private people. It is not the matter of being proud but seriously number of gun is will be the number of death. If it is in the hand of people, a day people will shoot another people. So gun only kills nothing apart killing. America does not kill but American kills American due to the existing gun policy. World’s believe on Americans as a saver, peace lover, saver of humanity etc., will be decreased. So instead of gun, government and private agencies and educational institutions have to popularize the Gorkha Khukuri culture in America to protect it internally and psychologically. In the 21st century, the world is completely civilized so there is no use of war and fight as in Stone Age. Negative war should be turned into positive love and respects. Thus soon the Gurkha Khukuri has to replace the gun culture in America because it is the symbol of peace and solidarity. Khukuri is peace creator. It helps to maintain peace and security or law and order in society. It is an operator or operating tool that eases the human life whether in jungle, village or in cities. The khukuri is of course a protector that saves the life in critical situation hundred times better than a gun.

References
Cook, P. J., & Ludwig, J. (1997, May). Guns in America: National Survey on Private Ownership and Use of Firearms. National Institute of Justice; Research in Brief, pp. 1-12.
Das, P. K., & Singh, M. K. (2012). Chanakkya : Unparalleled Diplomat . New Delhi: Mahabeer publishers.
Kates, D. B., & Mause, G. (2008). Would banning firearms reduce murder and suicide? A review of international and some domestic evidence. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 30, 650-685.
Miller, M. (2015). The Stock and Flow of US Firearms: Results from the 2015 National Firearms Survey. Boston: Northeastern University .
Open Society Institute. (2000). Gun Control in the United States :A Comparative Survey of State Firearm Laws. New York : Open Society Institute .
Richard, D. (2011). Forewords by colonel Brigade of Gurkhas. The Khukri - The Journal of The Brigade of Gurkhas, 7-9.
Smith, T. W., & Son, J. (2015). Trends in Gun Ownership in the United States, 1972-2014 . Chicago: University of Chicago .
www.crf-usa.org. (2012). Policies on Guns. Retrieved from www.crf-usa.org: www.crf-usa.org

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Last edited: 11-Jan-17 11:04 AM

 


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